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Alex Fantalov.

Myths of Ancient Greece.

The Origin of ancient Greek tribes leaves in depth of centuries. In the second millennium B.C. they have occupied a southern part of Balkan Peninsula which henceforth began to refer to as Greece or Hellade. There they have created the highest culture. A heritage of ancient Greeks have apprehended the Romans and have transferred other peoples of Europe (among which there were also Slavs). Hundreds years were kept) in monasteries and locks the manuscripts copied from the Greek originals, and at medieval universities studied works of the Greek philosophers. And 14 - 16 centuries of our era interest to culture of Ancient Greece has flashed as a bright star. This epoch was named Renaissance ("revival of the Greek culture"). The great European artists and sculptors were delighted with the Greek art. It not casually - you see about gods and heroes were devoted to histories surprising Greek art which great European artists and sculptors and tried to revive. What is the Greek mythology?

Greeks concern to great Indo-European to family of peoples. It means, that their representations about the world, gods and people have a uniform origin with the same representations in Slavic, Scandinavian, Indian, Celt and many other cultures. The Greek gods can be compared to gods of Slavs and Scandinavians on their attributes and that role which they played myths. It was reflected even in names of days of week. For example, Thursday at all listed peoples was devoted to the god of a thunder. But the Greek mythology had also a bright originality. We are surprised always with its beauty. Probably therefore the Greek myths till now serve sources of inspiration for poets, artists and musicians.

First of all the rest in the world there was an infinite Chaos. It was no emptiness - it comprised sources of all things, gods and people. In the beginning from Chaos there was a mother - ground - the goddess of the Gaia and the sky - Ouranes. From their marriage there were cyclops

- ("thunder", "shine", "lightning"). Highly in the middle of a forehead their unique eye shined, transforming underground fire in heavenly. The second Ouranes (Uranus) and the Gaia has caused "hundred-handes and fifth-headed ones" - ("anger", "force", "arable land"). And at last, on light the great tribe of titans has appeared.

Them was 12 - six sons and daughters of Uranus and Gaia . The ocean and Tefia was caused with all rivers. Hipperion and Teja there were ancestors of Sun (Helios), Moon (Selena) and dawn (Eos). From Hiaphet and has taken place mighty Atlas, holding nowadays heaven on his shoulders, and also smart Prometheus, near Epimetheus and impudent Menethius. Two more pairs titans and she-titans have brought into the world Gorges and other surprising creatures. But the future belonged to children of the sixth pair - the Chronos and Reia.

His posterity was not pleasant to Uranus and he has reset dumped cyclops

and hundred-handed ones in Tartar, an awful chasm (which simultaneously was also an alive essence and had a neck). Then Gaia

, having become indignant with the spouse, has persuaded titans to revolt against the Sky. All of them have attacked on Uranus and have deprived with his authority. The lord of the world henceforth became Crones - most artful of titans. But he has not let out from Tartar former captives, being afraid of their force.

We know a little, what life on the Earth was at that time. Greeks named the period of board the Crone the Golden Age. However to this new to the lord of the world it was predicted, that he in turn will be will overthrow the son. Therefore Crones was solved on an awful measure - began to swallow the sons and daughters. First he has swallowed Hesta, then Demeter and Hera, further Hades and Poseidon. The name of Crones means "time" and therefore people speak, that time absorbs the sons. - Zeus his unfortunate mother Reia has changed last child a stone. Crones has swallowed a stone, and young Zeus was hidden on island Crete where he was reared the milk by magic shegoat Amalhteia.

When Zeus began adults, he has managed cunning to release the brothers and sisters and they have begun struggle against Crones and titans. Ten years they battled, but the victory was not given that other party. Then Zeus by advice Gaia has released tormented in Tartar the Hundred-handed ones and Cyclops. Henceforth Cyclops began to forge his glorified lightnings. The Hundred-handed ones have brought down on titans a hailstones of stones and rocks. both his brothers and sisters who began to refer to as gods, have won. They, in turn have dumped titans in Tartar ("there where roots of the sea and the ground" are latent) and have put to guard them the Hundred-handed ones. Gods have started to correct the world.

Three brothers - Zeus, Poseidon and Hades have divided among themselves the universe.

In destiny the sea has got to Average brother Poseidon. He has taken in the spouse fine Amphitrita and lives with her in a wonderful underwater palace. Their son the Triton whom represented combining features of the person, horse and a fish, with a sea bowl causes terrible storms. Itself Poseidon likes to rush on the rough sea in a chariot, with sea horses and shaking by the terrible trident. Dark blue curls of the great god develop on a wind. Surround Poseidon nereides - fine daughters sea god Nereus and Protheus - changing, similarly to the sea the shape and having gift of a prediction (on facades of some Petersburg houses and lattices we can see some of these surprising essences).

The Younger brother, black-hair Hades, the owner of the helmet - invisible being has received the underground world in management. He married on Persephona , daughters herself Zeus . Life in Hades's empire (which also named Hades) is gloomy. It is surrounded with the river Stiks through which oppress died severe old man Haron transports. The input is protected terrible three-headed dog Cerber who is not letting out anybody back. Soul in Hades have various destiny however. The Souls of people, equalise whose bad and good affairs each other, wander among meadows, and groves of black poplars. Souls of criminals suffer severe penalties (for example, deceiver Sisif eternally should lift a heavy stone which hardly having reached top on the spot is rolled downwards on mountain). Oppress rithteous persons live in Helisium, the country of the not coming sun and islands Blessed. Speak, that there correct Crones which was pardoned by his son Zeus .

Zeus esteemed for the grown-up and " tsar of gods ", has received at section the sky and the ground. He has taken to himself in wife Hera ("madam", becoming the patroness of family and a marriage). At them fine daughters Ilifija and Geba and sons - master Hephaistos and warrior Ares were born. The magnificent dwelling of gods is on mountain Olympus where eternally reigns summer. Young Heba brings to gods on feasts nectar - food of gods. Zeus (in an image mature, black-haired the man) sits on a gold throne. Beside of him sacred eagle. There is Iris with iridescent wings near from a throne.

Inspite of mightly of Zeus, the authority above destiny is not given to him. To it three operate prophetic Moiraes. First of them appoints to the person a lot even before birth. The second one will come a string of human life. The third Moirae breaks off this string.

Becoming the lord of the world, Zeus was compelled to assert the superiority. The mother - ground of the Gaia dissatisfied sad destiny of the sons of titans, has caused monstrous Tiphon, surpassing all alive essences growth and force. He had hundred heads, all body of him was covered with feathers. Tiphon rushed with awful a roar. But Zeus has thrown in monster the lightnings. Tiphon has trembled, having started running. Then king of gods has pressed down him mountain Etna (in Sicily), from under which languages of a flame till now are pulled out.

Despite of respect with which was surrounded Zeus, he sometimes rendered insults of the spouse. Once king of gods has grown fond of a beauty Leto and from this marriage divine twins - gold-haired Apollo

and Artemis were born. Jealous Hera set on the competitor monstrous snake Pithon, causing those is a lot of sufferings. But when the Leto's son has grown, he from the wonderful bow has struck a fright. Apollo became one of the most esteemed gods of Greece, embodying harmony of the world. He perfectly plays on lyre and has gift of a prediction. His sacred animal griffin (as a winged lion with an eagle head) is a favourite ornament of old buildings of Saint Petersburg. Sister Apollona, Artemis became the goddess of hunting and the patroness of domestic cattle.

Another time Zeus has taken a great interest Maia, the daughter great Atlanta and at them son Germes was born. He became the patron of travellers and dealers, the god of eloquence and a cartridge of gymnastic competitions (from which and the word "grammar school" went). In duties of Hermes entered also to accompany with souls died in empire Hades. Represented this god unbearded young men, in a helmet with pair small wings, in winged sandals. In hands Hermes usually held a staff - caduzeus twisted with snakes (by means of which but immersed people in dream).

Before a marriage with the Hero, Zeus has taken in wife Methida ("idea"), the daughter of Ocean. But Moiraes talked that the son given birth from her will take away authority from the father. Zeus then has swallowed Methida and she became a part of his reason. Soon at the lord of gods the head has terribly ached. Then Zeus has asked that Prometheus has struck him on a head an axe. The head of king of gods was left by his daughter, Athena in a helmet and full fighting arms. Ancient Greeks very much esteemed her as the goddess of wisdom and fair war. In her honour the greatest Greek city was named. Symbols of the goddess were the snake and an owl, and also her aegis - a skin with the head of Jellyfish Gorges attached in the middle (which with two wings and snakes instead of hair can be seen as ornaments of the Petersburg facades).

To the Last on time of an origin began Dionysus son Zeus and Semela - the mortal woman. Artful Hera has persuaded Semela to ask Zeus be before her in all the divinity greatness. But from lightnings and fire of the god the mortal woman was lost. Zeus has picked up and has sewed up newborn Dionysus in a hip from which that as though was born again. In due course, Dionysus became the great god of fructifying forces of the ground, fault and violent fun during which fell down links, imposed by customs on the person. In this respect he was opposite harmonious Apollo. Symbol Dionysus was tirs, him accompanied goal-footed with satires and wild creatures.

A.N.Fantalov.

Myths of Ancient Greece. (the Text is printed under the edition Myths // our myths and fairy tales. - .: Publishing house RGPU him(it). A.I. Herzen, 2001. - With 11 - 26.

 

The most beauty goddess was " the golden Aphrodite ". Her origin is shrouded in a secret, some count the Aphrodite daughter Zeus. Others speak, that she ancient and has taken place from the Uranus, having risen from sea foam near to island Cyprus. The goddess wood animals, birds and Haris - surround goddesses of beauty and grace. Applicability of the Aphrodite - to awake in hearts of people and gods fine feeling of love. She has the magic belt of love. The husband of the Aphrodite became god - smith Hephaistos. He was ugly, but noble and had great talent to create surprising things. Once he has shaped even moving gold tripods which helped him in work (that there were first machines!). This plot speaks that the beauty should be near to talent, inspiring him for new creative work.

The Ancient Greeks liked the order, have grouped the majority of the listed gods that they named a pantheon ("all gods"), or "twelve Olympic gods". Number 12 at various peoples was considered sacred. Probably it is connected with that we able to receive this number multiplying 3 by 4. Thus 3 symbolise division of the world on a vertical (the sky, the ground and the underground world), and 4 means the sides of world. But anyway, the structure of a pantheon was not so steady. Usually it Zeus, Hera, Athena , Apollo , Artemis, the Aphrodite, Demeter (agriculture), Hesta (the goddess of sacral fire), Ares, Hermes, Hephaistos, Dionysus. Poseidon and Hades are not included in this number for stay in own possession.

 

 Myths and the modernity:

Odin and Christ. Images on Sweden runic stones.

 

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Modern Russia:

 

Lenin and Stalin and cultural-historical analogies.

The Russian domain or game with the zero sums.

The Soviet nomenclature.

Russian oligarchies.

Mao and Russia.

Imperous conflicts in Europe and Jeanne' D' Ark fatum.

Dostoevsky's romans.

The future is wild.

Poll Gauguin and Vincent Van Gogh.

Richard Wagner and The ring of Nibelung.

Bipolar Ukraine.

Orange revolution.