CULTURE of BARBAROUS EUROPE:
TYPOLOGY of MYTHOLOGICAL IMAGES
Chapter 1. Barbarous Europe and typology problem of mythological characters.
1.1. Barbarous Europe, and it cultural worlds
Concept of "Barbarous Europe ".
The Term "barbarians" - "bearded", having the Greek origin, has undergone the certain evolution in scientific and ordinary consciousness. Greeks of classical epoch named so all other peoples. Such opposition of "we" - "outsiders" is present in any cultures. Hence, Greeks included in concept "barbarians" and representatives advanced ancient oriental civilisations: Egyptians, Babylonians, Lydians, and Phoenicians. From the point of view of ancient Greek thinkers, for example, Aristotle, such division existed and will exist always.
The Romans, former pupils and successors of Greeks apprehended this terminology. But they bring about an extensive coloniser politics, first of all in Europe (Iberia, Gallia, Illyria, Thrace, Britain), involving in an orbit of the activity and a way of life independent peoples. Those, accepting the Roman order, "Pax Romana", as though ceased be "barbarians", becoming, on modern expression by "civilised people", (as, for example, Gallo-Romans). Hence, "barbarians", from the point of view of Rome are peoples and tribes of Europe, yet not had time to perceive an antiques culture (or it is active opposed to this). Thus, the Romans perceived " Barbarous Europe " - "Barbaricum" as a certain ethnic-cultural integrity. This opposition was promoted also by that the Roman world and Barbaricum belonged to various types of culture: The first - to type of culture of the antique policy, the second - to type of culture of cattlemen - nomads (Kagan, 2000, v.1, 162-165). Though traditionally nomads name Turkish-Mongolian peoples of the Central Asia, it is necessary to recognise, that the expanded understanding of the term including numerous vagrant peoples allows see the nomadic world as the global history-cultural phenomenon. Peoples of Barbarous Europe can be considered as a part of this world, showing characteristic for it three dominants: " cattle breeding, a nomadic way of life and aggression " (Kagan, 2000, v.1, 182). Even in 12 century in the Irish and Scottish kingdoms the cattle played a role of the basic riches.
The Roman understanding in any measure has inherited and arisen in bowels of empire Christianity. But when it became prevailing, confession of the Christian doctrine was included in number of necessary attributes of a belonging to a civilisation also. The follower of new belief began to refer to as a proud name "Roman", opposing itself "Paganus" - to the pagan as whom it could be understood both the native of empire and the foreigner. Later the countryman was named Paganus (and not casually - in a countryside pagan rites longly kept).
Then, half christianisiried and romanisiried German have destroyed decayed Rome and have based the medieval world. But elements of the Roman ideology were kept. To tell the truth, new, feudal way is not deduced neither from antique society, nor from the Christian community, and represents generation of a "barbarous" society (for example, feudal tournament performance, probably, occurs from love of barbarians to tinsel and vanity). To some extent, it is a way for the tribe of the conquerors, which have replaced besides a habitant landscape to dominate over conquested Roman population. On the other hand, the European feudalism has, probably, and deeper roots about what speak feature of the organisation Celt to a generality supervising the Western Europe in pre-Roman times.
Despite of the introduced innovations, representation about universal empire as about the certain ideal it was kept. From here and Charles Great's crowning, and " Sacred Roman empire of the German nation ", and even an imperial title of Napoleon. The western Europeans began to name "Barbarians" peoples which were not recognising religious authority Roman pontifics and political (let even fictitious) domination of new emperors. Mainly peoples of the East Europe fell under this concept.
After 16 century, in connection with secularisation of the Western Europe, last, having lost the name " the Christian world ", to epoch of Education began to be called as the world "civilised". Gradually the belonging to the Christian religion (not only in its western variant, but also as a whole) has ceased to play a role of the indicator for entry in this cultural - historical generality. Crucial importance, as well as in the Roman epoch, has received opposition of "barbarity" and "civilisation". From the similar point of view, mastering by such exotic country as Japan of some political, technological, legal standards has attached it to the Western, "civilised" world.
In scientific area the Roman understanding of "barbarians", as peoples of the ancient Europe which has been not covered with an antique civilisation was fixed. But there is also a parallel tendency to treat the term as any stage of development. For example, Marks, speaking about the periods of "barbarity" previous to the state development and "wildness followed for Morgan. This approach has except for lacks and the certain advantages. You see Greeks have realised the delimitation with next peoples since the certain period. As writes N. Nikulina "... Division into Greeks and non-Greeks " barbarians " has arisen, in essence, only in the classical period of the Greek history, after well-known Greek-Persian wars in which Greeks have gained a brilliant victory " (N. Nikulina, 1994, p. 20). And if we shall glance deep into their histories we shall see, that ancestors of Spartans have come to Balkan Peninsula in 12-th. c. BD From the Central Europe where lived side by side with ancestors the Celts, Illyrians, Germans, Balts and other, nothing being allocated among them. And others pre-Greek tribes were from different places of Europe where in any way did not surpass in the civilised to a level its other peoples. Means, they were then barbarians, similarly to the neighbours. We shall not approve "barbarians" environmental peoples began then when Greeks have counted as their those. And the transition to "civilisation" occured gradually. Macedonians, for example, were slighted as "barbarians" even after Peloponess war. Even later "civilised people" have realised itself the Romans and Italics as a whole.
The stage conception of "barbarity" has important value for the present research. It is the most probable that mythopoethic the tradition is a product of oral creativity of peoples which are taking place at a heroic, "barbarous" step of development. Indian rishas, Celtic bards Scandinavian skalds and even Greek aedas sang of gods and brave leaders with such force of images because their hearts were young. On words Levi-Strauss, in "... Those last times creators were such format what now seems outside achievable ".
And ingenious Italian J. Viko, developed in 18 century (on a material of Europe and Near East) wrote the cyclic concept of a history about two circulations of development. The first covered the Ancient world. The beginning of it is lost in depth of centuries when king-priests ruled. Over their era was triumphed with "religious times". Then there has come homeric epoch which Viko has named "heroic" from time to time. They were topped with Roman empire with the monarchic principle ratified in it. Each time, on Viko, was characterised by the type of legal norms: "The divine law", "the heroic law", "the human law". The new cycle of a history began from " the second barbarity " (we speak - the period of Great resettlement of peoples). Then " the divine right " (we shall recollect " the divine court " in legal practice) again was established. Divine times were replaced from time to time heroic (aristocratic) with their feudal wars and crusades. And, at last, in New Time there has come epoch of civil times. From the theory of the Italian thinker follows, by the way, that " human times " for outcome and we stand on a threshold of "the third barbarity".
Ethnic-cultural and chronological limits of a material:
It Is necessary to note, that Barbarous Europe as cultural - historical unity, it was formed almost exclusively " Indo-European by Europeans ". Peoples which are taking place outside Indo-European language family (Iberians, Picts etc.) turned in relicts to time of the beginning of the period interesting us, have left rather limited pagan heritage.
The language criterion is put in terms of the allocation of this or that mythological tradition standard in a science. It is connected to names of German scientists A. Kun, W. Manhard, English M. Muller, Russian F. Buslajev, I. Afanasjev and others, basing on achievements of comparative-historical linguistics and aimed at reconstruction Indo-European mythologies as initial system of mythological representations of ancestors of modern peoples of this language family. "We consider Indo-European mythology as set Hittite (and others Anatolean mythologies - Luwian, Pali and later - Lydian, Lycian), Aryan (including the Indian mythology, the Iranian mythology, Dard and Nuristan (Cafir), middle East, aryan mythologies), the Armenian mythology, the Greek mythology, Italic mythologies, Celt mythologies, the German-Scandinavian mythology, the Baltic mythology, Slavic mythology, Tocharic mythologies, and also fragments of mythologies concerning to Albanian, Thracian, Illyrian, Phrygian, Venetian and to some other traditions known in incomplete transfer " (Myths of nations of the world, 1998, т. 1, 527).
The Second criterion for allocation of this or that tradition are this to archaeology. An origin Indo-European frequently connect to archaeological culture of fighting axes. This culture reached in the beginning 3 thousand BD From Jutland up to Volga. To speak about any representatives nowadays existing language groups, in view of full absence of written certificates it is not necessary. In the period with late bronze up to early Iron Age (14 - 7-th. c. BD) the significant part of the Western and Central Europe was occupied with so-called culture of fields of burials. In parallel there were cultures in Scandinavia and the East Europe. It is probable, then already there was a process of formation of European peoples known to us. Nevertheless, a gloom around of their history clears away later (Laten period - with 5 c. BD) when they get in sight the Greek authors.
With reference to this time, using in aggregate linguistic and archaeological criteria, experts allocate large cultural a generality. For example, in Europe on the limit of 1-th c. BD M. B. Shchukin totals such 7 unites, having named them " the cultural worlds ". " All these worlds are not monoethnical and not monocultural, and represent conglomerates of various archaeological cultures, various tribes and peoples (that cultures and ethnoses not necessarily coincide with each other). But making each world have and the certain similarity caused by a number of the reasons - similar forms of economic activities, the social organisation, an environment, and also following from here and similarity of structure of the majority of cultures of everyone of " the world ", and, probably, in any measure and a mental warehouse of overwhelming part of the population that is most adequately reflected in art, but also in the general shape of culture." (Shchukin, 1994, with. 12 - 13). Conditionally Shchukin calls these worlds 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7, but recognises, that in fact these were the Greeks and Italics,the Celts , the Germanics , the Balts , the Finno-Ugrics, the Scythian-Sarmatians, the Thracian-Dacians , though considers, that in this worlds could enter and peoples of other language groups. "The cultural world" the present research and as a whole will adhere to this definition of concept. However the classical antiquity is behind frameworks of Barbarous Europe. It represented, faster, other pole of existence forming together with " a pole of barbarians " more extensive system. These both poles were in close interaction. Do not enter into a circle of Barbarous Europe and the Finno-Ugrics which are not Indo-European and practically did not contact to a classical antiquity and had special historical destiny. On the other hand, as in the present research wider time interval is mentioned, rather than in work Shchukin, to number of the cultural worlds of considered region it is necessary to attribute also the Slavs (which are not taken into account). Shchukin believes, that they were not generated yet by 1 century AD) and the Illyrians (the last from Shchukin's point of view already have left to a limit millennium from a historical stage). So, we have seven cultural worlds of Barbarous Europe: Celt, Germanic-Scandinavian, Baltic, Scythian-Sarmatian, Thracian-Dacian, Illyrian, Slavic ones. Except for them and a classical antiquity this research repeatedly addresses to some other related Indo-European to the cultural worlds: Etruscan, Hittite-Luwian, Iranian and Indian, giving the important additional information.
Chronologically the material is marked as follows. In mass volume, the works of art, able to comprise mythological images and the plots correlated with references, start to appear in Barbarous Europe from the beginning of the Iron Age (so-called Halstadt With - 7 in. AD, and it is especial from the following behind it Laten the period - with 5-th. c. BD). To this time have arisenthe Celts and the Slavs , Thracian-Dacian and Illyrian the cultural worlds (be relative so early origin of Germanic-Scandinavians, Balts and Slavs are not present such confidence). And, that it is important, in the same period cultural has stood apart, having opposed itself to "barbarians" antique Greece, (the fact having far-reaching consequences).
The top limit of existence of Barbarous Europe is more dim. In territory of Roman Empire by which were won Celt andthe Thracian-Dacians the worlds, the Christianity was ratified in 4-th AD, superseding pagan cults. In parallel there was slower process of christening of the German, finished to 10-th AD the Scythian-Sarmatians became victims of epoch of Great resettlement of peoples though their relict - Alanians, has escaped in mountains of Caucasus and has created rich epic the tradition richly sated with mythological motives.
Pagan mythology Slavs and Scandinavians Longer kept. At the last it even has gone through original blossoming in 5 - 11-th. c. AD That were "overdue flowers northern paganism" Nevertheless, by 12 century christening of Slavs and Scandinavians basically was completed. Last bastion - Lithuanian paganism has fallen in the beginning of 15 centuries.
All told concerns to pagan cults as to prevailing system of outlook. But at a level of folklore and a folk art vestiges of mythology were strongly kept up to 19 - the beginnings of 20 centuries. They also are the important materials for the researcher.
The Basic cultural worlds of Barbarous Europe had in many respects the common destiny. They have taken place from uniform Indo-European a root, during centuries keeping similarity in pagan cults and mythologies. Thus an enormous role in their evolutions the Greek-Roman influence (mentioned, in particular, iconography and writing) has played. Characteristic absence at peoples, taking place on heroic - a "barbarous" stage of development of graphic tradition, apparently, is. We can observe a similar collision on various examples. D.S. Raevsky writes: " In pre-Scythian epoch in Northern Black Sea coast in an equal measure are not known neither images of the person, nor the image of animals <...> We Compare these data to that fact, that in a history Indo-Aryans, promoted on territory Hindustan Peninsula, also existed the long period when they, probably, did not know the fine arts <...> Have not brought with itself the fine arts and the Iranians, settled on a boundary 2 - 1 millenniums AD On the Iranian plateau: in a basis of the graphic tradition existing here later, has lain, on V.G. Lukonina's expression, " style of citations ", т. е. She(it) was generated on the basis of borrowing images and iconographic circuits from an arsenal of art of Near East of previous time. " (Raevsky, 1985, 89 - 90). The Germans borrowed graphic receptions at the Romans, Celts borrowed them at the Etruscans, and those, in turn - at Greeks. Certainly, the heroic stage frequently is characterised by a high level of spiritual culture and barbarians, using another's iconographic circuits, put in them the original maintenance. However the temptation of the next advanced civilisation always very strongly influences barbarians. Any of peoples of Barbarous Europe could not from the beginning and up to the end to pass the original way of development, being cultural is absorbed antique, or in later time Christian by the worlds. Any of these peoples has not generated the steady centralised power within the framework of the primary tradition. The Celts, Thracian-Dacians and Scythian-Sarmatians became victims of a gain. German and Slavic peoples built the statehood on the basis of the Christian-Roman heritage. Nevertheless, features Indo-European traditions appeared are deeply implanted in the European cultures, rendering powerful influence on all subsequent history of these parts of the world. In feudal epoch they became important making simultaneously national and aristocratic outlooks, and in 19 century - during formation of the national states of Europe were claimed by the new intelligence searching for ways of self-identification.
So, summarising told, it is possible to tell, that the concept of "barbarity" of this research has incorporated:
1. cultural historical ("Roman") understanding;
2. religious ("medieval") understanding;
3. stage understanding.
Cultural - historical concept " Barbarous Europe " is because it was occupied by peoples having general Indo-European the origin and on which, besides, a strong print influence of a powerful Greek-Roman civilization has lain. Religious concept it is owing to domination in its territory of the pagan religions also having a uniform origin. At last, it is possible to consider Barbarous Europe and with stage points of view as its existence passed within the limits of the delayed heroic century which overcoming for this or that people meant, simultaneously, and an output from uniform "barbarous" cultural space. The territory of this space, certainly, varied for so long period of a history. In different time it occupied space of modern Spain, France, British Isles, Germany, Scandinavia, Central and the East Europe (up to Volga).
Our days, it is possible to divide Barbarous Europe, as well as Europe into two big regions conditionally. The first covers its west, the second - the centre and the east. The tradition of similar differentiation takes the beginning in the Greek sources speaking about "Celts" and "Scythians" (using these concepts it is wider, than we). The West-European barbarians is the Celts and German, " barbarians in the pure state ", taking place in close interaction with each other. Besides peoples Celt and the German-Scandinavian groups occupy unique position among other European barbarians on volume of the mythological heritage. And it in an equal measure concerns both the fine arts, and literary monuments. The analogy between the Celts and German-Scandinavians in this question is rather remarkable. Continental the Celts (basically Gauls) have created huge quantity of images of the gods, but have not left mythological texts. But island tradition (mainly Irish, but also and British) have kept great mythoephic the tradition comparable on volume with antique. German peoples (to be exact, their Scandinavian branch) posess the significant file of the pagan fine arts concentrating on continent - in Sweden, to Denmark, Norway. But the mythology was besides kept on island - in Iceland. Thus, the West-European barbarians are favourably allocated in comparison with the east neighbours who are almost not having in writing fixed myths.
However, at significant similarity of situations in the field of preservation Celt and the Scandinavian mythologies, a parity iconography and a textual material in both traditions unequally. The Irish sagas have undergone to powerful processing from positions of the Christian doctrine. Therefore, in business of reconstruction Celt pantheon monuments of pagan, continental art have paramount value. On the contrary, the Scandinavian written sources were kept in rather complete kind and allow to be guided by them at the analysis of artefacts (and chronological break between them is not so great).
The Celts and German long time were the basic contenders of a classical antiquity, and have made skeleton of feudal Europe later. Their many primary features have determined process of a medieval society.
Central and the East Europe more mosaic region. Its territory can be divided into three smaller sizes of area by cultural - historical and language criteria. The first was occupied the Thracians and Illyrians, the second Scythians and Sarmatians, the third Balts and Slavs. Many philologists - Indo-European as it was already marked, carry these peoples to east branch of this language family allocated some more of A. Meje. A.N. Savchenko includes in it Indo-Iranians, Greeks, Armenians, Phrigians, Thracians, Balts and Slavs - the truth, without Illyrians (Savchenko, 1974, p. 374 - 375). On this question there is no full clearness. However, for mentioned peoples of East and Central Europe the common tendencies of social-cultural development that was reflected and in mythological representations are characteristic. It is typical, that Thracians, Illyrians, Scythians, Sarmatians, Balts practically have not kept the texts containing a coherent statement of legends about gods and attitudes between them. Instead of it we have late folklore and brief annalistic data. But the leading role in reconstruction of mythology of region is played with the fine arts. Studying of this material allows to draw a conclusion, that characteristic feature pagan (and appreciably and post pagan) ideologies central and East-European peoples, at all variants, is reverence in quality of very important religious object of the horseman on a white horse, "king of past and future", messiah.
1.2. A structural nucleus in mythologies of peoples of Barbarous Europe and social-cultural determinants of the basic mythological types.
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