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Alex Fantalov

 

 1.2. A structural nucleus in mythologies of peoples of Barbarous Europe and social-cultural determinants of the basic mythological types

 

The Basic structural nucleus in mythologies of peoples of Barbarous Europe and related traditions.

 

The opportunity of exarticulation of the basic structural nucleus in mythologies of ancient peoples requires a scientific substantiation. Really, here there are problems both theoretical, and methodological character.

The Theoretical problem consists in the following. Pagan mythological systems, in comparison with religious, are characterised not only polytheism, but also absence of the unified and rigidly fixed doctrine. The written sources, which have reached us from rather late periods, have kept huge quantity of characters (for example, "one thousand gods Hittite empires"). In this connection, the opportunity of existence of such complete mythological system covering the various cultural worlds sometimes is denied, and the problem is reduced to presence of separate local cults. Here, however, it is necessary to object that pagan mythological systems were not so amorphous and friable as can seem. Their existence was supported by the important factor, which named "preliminary censorship of collective ". On D. Raevsky's ideas in mythological tradition rooting only those forms and samples is possible, "which are functionally suitable for this collective" (D. Raevsky, 1985, 12). Thus, the impossibility to individual imaginations is provided " to break structure of that invariant nucleus which, as a matter of fact, and can be interpreted as mythological system " (In the same place). Nevertheless, it is necessary to take into account specificity of ancient mythological systems. " The more deeply in archaic we mentally leave, the less we find at carriers of the certain cultural tradition skill " to formulate " norms, principles of the culture, to build its theoretical model which has been torn off concrete representations " (In the same place, with. 70). Therefore, it is possible to speak about syncrethic divine images, than about "gods - experts" (which if arose in separate traditions only in later time) faster.

The first Step in understanding of this invariant nucleus is allocation of the steadiest chains of mythological characters on a material of the largest mythological systems of Indo-Europe:

 

function

Greek mythology

Indian mythology

Scandin. mythology

Slav mythology

Balt mythology

Irish mythology

1

sky

Ouranes

Zeus

Varuna

Dyaus

Tyr

Svarog

Dievas

Nuadha

(Teutat)

2

thunder

Zeus

Parjanya

Indra

Thor

Perun

Perkunas

(Taranis)

3

war

Ares

Skanda

Indra

Tyr

Odin

Perun

Perkunas

Nuadha

Morrighan

4

kingship

Zeus

Indra

Odin

Herovit

Perun

Dievas

Perkunas

Nuadha

Lugh

5

earth

Gaia

Prthivi

Erd

Mokos

Zemes- mate

Danu

Brigit

6

fate

Moirae

 

Nornir

Valkyrie

Mokos

Laima,

Dekla,

Karta

triad of Mother-Goddesses

7

goddess of love

Aphrodite

Laksmi

Freyja

Lada

Laima

Aine

8

matrimon

Hera

Savitri

Frigg

Lada

Laima

 

9

natural power

Dionysus

Rudra

Shiva

Freyr

Herovit

Vels

(Potrimpo)

(Cernunnos-Hes)

Dahghda

10

forest,

animals

Pan

Pusan

Rudra

 

Veles

(Puskaits)

(Cernunnos)

11

underworld

Hades

Yama

Varuna

Odin

Hel

Veles

Vels

(Patollo)

Dahghda

Manannan

12

psychopomp

Hermes

Yama

Odin

 

Sovius

 

13

mystery knowledge

Hermes

Visvakarman

Odin

Veles

Vels

Lugh

Oghma

14

sea

Poseidon

Varuna

Eagor

Njord

 

(Autrimps)

Manannan

15

light and

harmony

Apollo

Mitra

Bhaga

Vishnu

Balder

Dazhbog

 

Mac Ok

(Mapon)

16

fire

Hesta

Agni

Loki?

Svarogich

Gabie

 

17

wind

Boreas

Vayu

Njord

Stribog

Vejapats

 

18

moon

 

Soma

Mani

 

Meness

 

19

sun

Helios

Surya

Sol

Hors

Saule

(Belenus)

20

dawn

Eos

Ussas

 

Usen

Ausrine

(Epona)?

21

twins

Dioscuri

Asvinau

 

 

Sons of Dievas

 

22

god of love

Eros

Kama

 

Lel

 

Mac Ok

23

crafts-manship

Hephaistos

cyclops

Tvastar

dwarfs

Kozma

Demyan

Kalvaitis

Goibhniu

24

medicine

Asclepius

Dhanvantari

 

 

(Aushauts)

Dian-Cecht

Now it is necessary to reduce these numerous chains to possible to smaller quantity archetypic images. The essential contribution to understanding of this problem has brought A. Holan, analysing most extensive mythological material of peoples of Eurasia. His conclusions are published in the book "the Myth and a symbol". Not sharing some of them, it is necessary to tell that the typology of mythological characters Holan, though is not final, has the important value.

Holan approves that in epoch of a Neolithic Age there was a religion, in the basic positions uniform for an extensive area cultures of Forward Asia and Southeast Europe and rendering influence on the next less advanced regions. The basic deities of this religion: the goddess of the sky and the god of the ground, and also their children (the god of growth, the god - benefactor, brothers - twins and their sister the goddess of the sun). (Holan, 1992. - p. 12).

The Idea that a role of the Great goddess (so she is named still by antique authors), it is impossible to limit to sphere of the ground, is represented true (shall recollect even cloudy wives and maidens of late folklore). She was considered as Mistress a rain and moisture, the mistress of animals, Mistress lives and death. A symbol of her was a circle (turned into a ring). The goddess was personified by such animals, as a bird (for example, a cuckoo - see. Holan, 1992, 173), also insects - the butterfly, a bee (all - air elements!) etc. Her spouse the master of a bottom (the god of the ground or the Underworld) in two images were usual (the snake or an animal); and heavenly (an eagle, the hawk, a kite) - when he rose to the spouse. Holan considers, that attitudes between this spouses were completely not idyllic, and during one of quarrels the goddess of the sky has dumped on the ground of the spouse from what that has gone lame (Holan, 1992, 191).

Holan do not precise differentiation between selected with him "the god of the earth" and the master Underworld. Sometimes he speaks about them as about a uniform deity, symbolised both the bull, and predators like a leopard, a lion, and a wolf. But a stumbling-block for similar mixture there is popular in art of the Ancient East a plot torment the bull a lion. " Very much can be, that in the Bottom Mesopotamia (taking place, by the way, in the neighbourhood with Elam) the bull and a lion - images Neolithic Age the god of the ground and Underworld - were represented to epoch of a Neolithic Age two different deities. Can be, they were considered consisting in relationship and both used respect. <...> Though the bull was esteemed as divine embodiment the Earth, on mythological representations he could be killed by other representative of "bottom". But the death of the bull was time: in 40 days his constellation again appeared above horizon, and people exulted concerning revival of the god " (Holan, 1992, 55). " At last, it is possible, that Mesopotamian the bull killed by a lion, it not the god of the ground, and the god of vegetation <...> Here Could affect and that circumstance, that images of deities of the ground and vegetation in general precisely are not differentiated, quite often mixing up in myths (and, by the way, in graphic symbolics) " (Holan, 1992, 67). The god of vegetation, according to Holan, was represented in an image of the ram, whose horns remind sprouts to a seed. From here nearby and till an image of a deer - symbolizing god of the benefactor.

The god - benefactor was thought then in an image of the deer connected to elements of the ground. " There Are ancient figures on which deer horns are treated as vegetative forms (fig. 63 : 6). Such association could arise and because of similarity deer horns with branches and consequently, that the deer dumps horns an autumn, and new at it grow is similar to annual revival of vegetation " (Holan, 1992, 40) in the spring. " So, we come to a conclusion about the maintenance of the most ancient cosmogonies myth explaining rising and a sunset: the deer (an essence belonging to the ground) has stolen the sun - maiden in the underground world and ran with her on the sky. Angry the lord of the Underworld has pursued a deer, has struck him and has returned the captive back " (Holan, 1992, 42). " The wonderful deer, which has stolen the sun - maiden for, has turned to the hero this to people the sun, light, fire. And then he became in general the benefactor of people who have attached them and to other values: agriculture, craft, knowledge." (Holan, 1992, 44). From a deer bearing from under the ground the sun, nearby and up to a boat transporting souls died and up to a horse, carrying out the same function. Holan writes, that later the horse has replaced a deer in his role mediator (with. 49 - 50).

Holan believes, that "Neolithic religion" as the system existed up to 3 - the beginnings 2 thousand before Indo-Europeans intrusion and some other peoples, "... Therefore in Europe and Forward Asia the culture of the most ancient farmers was destroyed, the Stone Age was replaced bronze, new peoples were formed and distributed Indo-European languages, beliefs were changed, and the former cult symbols was adapted to other religious views." (Holan, 1992, 10).

Sights Holan are original, but attempt of decoding will unexpectedly be coordinated to them Celt images on the well-known boiler from Gundestrup which was undertaken by the French scientist Jean Jacque Hatt. It will be in detail considered in the chapter devoted Celt to mythology. In brief, Hatt speaks about the following basic characters Celt mythology: the god of thunder Taranis ; the god connected to Earthly elements Cernunnos ; to the goddess - their spouse; divine hero Smertrius; the god of sky Teutat . Таранис, being jealous the goddess, насылает on it(her) of monstrous volko-dogs. That, wishing to disappear, turns to a bird. Smertrius (Cernunnos's supporter) kills a dog. Then, the coalition of gods (where enters and Teutat) sends army on protection of the goddess. Taranis, in turn, sends dogs to grasp certain sacred bull, but Smertrius again leaves the winner and the goddess returns the natural shape.

Semantic crossings of conclusions Hatt and Holan are interesting. The thunder god Taranis can correspond air image of lords of the Underworld. Pair: Cernunnos and Smertrius vividly remind the god of growth or the god of the ground (in the event that to understand the last separately from the lord of the Underworld) and the god - benefactor. Both Cernunnos, and Smertrius suffered from anger Taranis. Are important here and animal symbols: a deer and bull (Cernunnos), predatory animal Taranis (variant "torment"), birds of the goddess. Analysis by Hatt reveals not only Earthly, but also heavenly began goddesses - mothers (that corresponds to Holan's concept).

It is necessary to tell that Hatt and Holan concepts as though supplement each other. The first has offered the concrete analysis of monuments of the fine arts Celt to mythology. The second - On the most extensive material of cultures of the world he has tried to reveal the second structure of global mythology, which sources saw in "Neolithic religions". At all interest and importance of conclusions Holan, they frequently seem too courageous - the disorder of cultures to which monuments considered by the scientist belong is too great. Besides at acquaintance to work Holan does not leave a thought that exarticulation by the scientist of initial deities is carried out faster by a sensual - shaped principle.

In the present thesis research by extremely important concepts "the mythological type" and "a mythological image" are. Thus between them strict differentiation will be marked. Further we shall understand as "mythological type" initial syncrethic structure, in personified form reflecting natural and, simultaneously, a social reality which, in particular, was present in culture of Barbarous Europe and in Indo-European peoples cultures (at least, at a stage of their unity). According to the concept submitted in the present research, mythological types formed a certain structural nucleus.

The structural nucleus here is meant as group of these mythological types incorporated among themselves by specific plot-semantic connections).

"The mythological image" further will be understood as concrete expression of mythological type in culture of separate peoples Indo-European language family. It represents display any supreme reality, past through a prism of perception of representatives of concrete culture and reflected in mythologies, rituals, the fine arts, the literature. Thus, frequently, there were situations when this or that type was shown inside any culture in several synchronously existing images (by virtue of its unequal perception representatives of various social, ethnic, demographic groups). As in most cases the plot-semantic communications existing between initial mythological types, took place and with reference to mythological images, it is possible to speak and about local displays of the mentioned structural nucleus.

The Problem of methodological character consists in search of criterion of the selection, allowing reducing all variety of mythological characters to several steady types. In the present research allocation of this types is under construction on the basis of possession them of the most significant for ancient societies functions. Such functions were legislative, military, agrarian - magic, cultural - mediator ones. As a whole, these functions in conditions of ancient societies had strongly pronounced man's character for division by trades existed, first of all, among men. The role of the woman was multifunctional and, therefore, it would be logical to allocate as independent the syncretic function connected to female works. Such approach differs from Dumezil theory where Indo-European gods are grouped in magic, military and economic-natural functions (each of which corresponded to one of three Vedic groups of the population (varns). However the reality even in Vedic epoch was much more complex. In the present research is accepted for the obvious fact that agrarian (and in earlier time and hunting) activity was inextricably related with magic representations. Hence, allocation Dumezil of magic in special function hardly is lawful. On the other hand, it is perfect irrespective of military-power there was cultural - mediator function. It will be shown below, what groups of the population really were responsible for performance of these roles and whose ideology expressed embodiments of the appropriate mythological types. The concept offered in the present research, consists in the following:

1. In all a phenomenological variety of mythological images of pantheons of Barbarous Europe (and is wider - the Indo-European pantheon) it is possible to isolate the invariant base types, making initial structural nucleus, each of which has one of five functions selected by the author. So, legislative function the God of the Clear Sky as he patronises breeding collective and the military right (in Holan's concept he is not present, and on the boiler from Gundestrup to this character corresponded to Teutat). By military - power function it is characterised the God of the Thunder being the spokesman of ideology of aristocracy among which priority interests military activity was took the major place (to the God of the Thunder could correspond air image lords of the Underworld according to Holan and Celt Taranis). The god of Earthly Forces esteemed by priests and farmers, carries out agrarian - magic function (to him there is in agreement with the god of growth and in any measure the god of the earth Holan, and also Celt Cernunnos). The cultural Hero has got cultural-mediator function as he personifies sacred imperial authority, including role of the intermediary between gods and people (the god benefactor according to Holan, Smertrius in Hatt's concept). At last, the multifunctional syncretic female type of the Great Goddess connects a dual Sky-Earthly nature (the goddess of sky Holan).

2. The circuit of mutual relation between these types can be presented as a ring, which is, formed by the man's characters, located beside with each other depending on correlation their functions. So, the God of the Thunder and the God of Sky in a number of traditions tend to merge in a uniform image as both they are connected to heavenly elements. The same tendency is observed and with reference to Earthly gods - to the God of Earth Powers and the Cultural Hero (though last can be the son of the first). Thus, the Cultural Hero as closely connected with the world of people the character, has the related features and good luck the Clear Sky (and in some traditions it is considered his son, between them also frequently arises intermediate type of twins. Only the God of the Thunder and the God of Earth Powers are antagonists (the Cultural Hero suffers from their conflict also). The unique female deity mentally placed in the centre of a ring, plays binding role among man's images. More often she of the spouse of the God of Thunder and the God of Earth Powers, in a number of traditions the goddess consists in marriage relations good luck the Clear Sky. And more and more late female characters of mythologies of Barbarous Europe (and the Indo-European mythologies as a whole) are derivatives from an image of the Great Goddess.

Names of days of week at Indo-European mythologies peoples confirm the importance of these types of gods:

England

Holland

Germany

Norway

France

Italy

Spain

Monday

Maandag

Montag

Mandag

lundi

lunedi

Lunes

Tuesday

Dinstag

Dienstag

Tirsdag

mardi

martedi

Martes

Wednesday

Woenstag

Mittwoch

Onstag

mercredi

mercoledi

Miercoles

Thursday

Donderstag

Donnerstag

Torstag

jeudi

giovedi

Jueves

Friday

Vrijdag

Freitag

Fredag

vendredi

venerdi

Viernes

Saturday

Zaterdag

Samstag

Lordag

samedi

sabato

Sabado

Sunday

Zondag

Sonntag

Sondag

dimanche

domenica

Domingo

 

Certainly, influence of astrology (as names of gods connected with heavenly bodies) and the Bible (the name "Saturday" this to the sixth day of week here has had an effect. Nevertheless, presence of names main Indo-European mythologies characters, that are in agreement with the basic types of gods allocated in this work is indicative. The vivid example the German languages show. Tuesday - day of Tiw (the God of Sky). Wednesday is day of Woden/Odin (the Cultural Hero). Thursday is day of Donner/Thor (the God of Thunder). It is interesting that in Russia where thunder god (Perun) was replaced by prophet Ilya, "Ilya's day" had also on Thursday). Friday - day of Freyja (the Great Goddess). In Russia functions of the Great Goddess partly went on Parasceva-Friday). Probably, day of the God of Earth Powers was Saturday.

In Romance languages we observably a similar picture. But the Roman mythology represented a little more eclectic formation. Tuesday is connected to Mars who though had military function, as the God of the Clear Sky, in genesis was the God of Earthly Forces. With Wednesday and Friday all is simple: Mercury and Venus belonged, accordingly, to types of the Cultural Hero and the Great Goddess. Thursday is this to the Jove (Jovis Pater, originally Diovis - "brilliant"). His name speaks about an accessory to type of the God of the Clear Sky. However Mediterranean peoples (the Greeks, the Italics and the Etruscans) had steady tendency to allocate this type and thunderous function.

Sunday - day of the sun and Monday - day of the moon exist apparently. Is allowable to assume that they, under the names, are additional days as the Cultural Hero and the God of Earthly Forces find out in many traditions strongly pronounced sun-moon symbolics. It agrees Zoroastrian sources, "... Guyomard shined as the sun, and the protogenic Bull was white and shining, as the Moon..." (Rak, 1998, 467). Sun features are traced in many Cultural Hero embodiment (though they usually direct and are not identified with the sun): Indian Vivasvat, a primogenitor mortal on the ground (father of Yama and Manu), later becoming the solar god; Iranian Vivahvant (Yama's father); Greek Apollo; Slavic Dazhbog; Celt Lugh, Belenus etc. In this connection pertinently to recollect solar deer of A. Holan. At the same time embodiments of the God of Earthly Forces contain lunar symbolics. The moon was treated as two horns of the bull, it was considered as a source of fertility (there is a legend that the grass grows at the moon). On Near East during a lunar eclipse spoke "the lion torments the bull". In Vedas the Indian god of the moon of the Catfish frequently is characterised by an epithet "bull", he sometimes refers to "as the judge of dead" (some encroachment on Yama's prerogatives). A catfish is the god of the same ritual intoxicating drink that is in agreement with Dionysus.

Chapter 1. Barbarous Europe and typology problem of mythological characters:

1.2. A structural nucleus in mythologies of peoples of Barbarous Europe and socio-cultural determinants of the basic mythological types (ending)

 

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