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A. Fantalov.


German people appear much later the Celts in a history. Actually, this name the Romans have started to use since 1 century b. D. One of the first displays of " the German spirit " steel of act of the Kymbres and the Teuthonics (the truth, they, probably, belonged to peoples, intermediate between the Celts and Germanics). The Teuthonics aspired to establish the control above Celticum, but eventually were exterminated by the Romans. The same fate has comprehended above mentioned Ariovist. Power of Rome grew and in 1-th c. A. D. Tiberius occupied the grounds between Rhine and Elba. The answer became creation of "power" barbarian king Marobod it covered territories of present Poland, Czech and East Germany, number of Marobod's soldiers reached 70 thousandes and revolt of the Heruscian leader, destroyed in Teuthoburg wood three Roman legions. Retaliatory Roman expeditions in common have not reached the purpose. The organized machine of the Roman regular army finally appeared powerless German have proved, that if people has will to struggle, it in a condition to keep independence.

However, the German tribes did not wish to obey and to own kings. Marobod was expelled. On two one century between empire and Free Germany the balance interrupted, certainly, by conflicts was established.

New epoch has come in middle 3-th c. A. D. - so-called Great resettlement of peoples. Rome was in a condition of a political collapse, and among German young aggressive peoples which L. Gumilev counted generation ethnic a push have appeared: Allemanes, Goths and Francs. To two the big future was fated to last. According to the gothic historian of 6 centuries to Jordan, the Goths and Vandals occured from Southern Scandinavia. They have landed in a mouth of Vistula and have gradually promoted up to Black Sea. Then Goths, having used Bospor ships, have plundered Greece and coast of Asia Minor. In 4 century, in territory of the East Europe there was an extensive power Hermanarih. However Goths have not got on with many local ethnoses (behind exception Alanians) and were expelled hunns. They have found a refuge on the grounds of empire, but with that поры represented permanent threat to Rome. Finally, Westgoths have grasped Gallia and Iberia (Spain), and Ostgoths - Illyria and Italy. Other tribes did not lag behind also: Francs, Vandals, Anglo-Saxons, Herules, Friezes...

Participation of ancient German in numerous wars and often change of places has had an effect on social structure. At these tribes it was not kept ancient Indo-Europeans estates of priests and leaders, or most important people carried out religious practices. By virtue of it, and also early Christianisation (which on continent passed not so softly), the German mythology has not reached us in the protogenic kind. But its Scandinavian variant was kept.

The Scandinavian tribes behind exception it is ready have not taken part in Great resettlement of peoples. These years they showed relative peaceful disposition. Ancestors of Swedes have formed strong Sweden power (described still Tacitus). With 5-th A. D. it enters into a strip economic and cultural blossoming - so-called the Vendel period. Cultural communications of the Scandinavians are distributed from British isles up to Average Volga. In art has developed international "Vendel style" in which are traced both Roman and east (Sarmatian) influence. For its creation the Irish tradition had special value. As intermediaries between Scandinavians and the Celts at this time Anglo-Saxons, probably, acted. But the original centre of the new art covering the European continent up to Frank power and Italy was Sweden and its such centres, as Uppsala, Valcgarde, and Vendel.

However, the period of prosperity and relative rest the event which reminded epoch of Resettlement of peoples and has received the name has replaced " movement of Vikings " (the word "Vikings" occurs whether from "vik" - " a bay, having filled ", whether from "vikingr" - " the pirate, the robber "). Victims of their attacks became England, Ireland, France, Northern Germany, Iberian Peninsula, and Southern Italy. It is known significant, though also an ambiguous role of the Vikings in creation of the Kiev Russia.

The Vikings have opened and have occupied Iceland. Its development had key value for preservation of the Scandinavian mythology. Here it is necessary to mean that the culture of Vikings developed already in Christian time, representing some kind of "overdue flowers northern paganism Retraction of Scandinavians in life of continental Europe entailed their christening quite often accompanied with cultural excesses. In Iceland this process occurred rather peacefully (as well as in Ireland), here long time exist pagan belief, and then ancient gods went in the category of poetic metaphors.

From the point of view of safety of mythology of the Scandinavians are similar the mythology of the Celts . On the one hand, it is a grandiose layer of the pagan arts and crafts categorised as several historical periods. Most significant of these periods were: the Period of great resettlement of peoples (3 - 5-th c. A. D.), left well-known bracteats - gold metal plates, the Vendel period (5 - 8-th c. A. D.) from it it is magnificent ornamented with the weapon; Century of vikings (the end 8 - 11-th c. A. D.) when well-known images on stones and monuments wood grooves were created.

On the other hand, it is texts. Scandinavians had Iceland becoming for them same container of the mythology what for the Celts Ireland was. (In general it is noticed, that on islands relic forms, and not only cultures, but also a nature) more often are kept. And again, a positive role the Christianity with its traditional learning here has played. In 13-th c. A. D. in Iceland two remarkable books were created. She is "Elder Edda" and "Younger Edda". The first represents the anonymous collection mythological, ephic and didactic songs. The second, belonging well-known Sturluson and being on a plan the textbook skaldic poetry, as a matter of fact, is the prosaic and structured transposition of the significant case of myths. Thus it is very important, that both "Eddas" include the major creative and echatologic myths. The Grammar adjoins to these monuments (also mentioning ancient gods, though and in eugemeric interpretation) and a number skaldic verses and work by Danish historian Saxon. Time break between a textual and graphic material is not so great as at the Celts, that also facilitates studying mythologies.

Thracian and Dacian history



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