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The Russian state pedagogical university by name of A.I. Herzen

Alex Fantalov

 

CULTURE of BARBAROUS EUROPE:

TYPOLOGY of MYTHOLOGICAL CHARACTERS

The Speciality 24.00.01 - the theory and a history of culture

The Thesis on competition a scientific degree of the candidate of cultural science

 

The Supervisor of studies - the doctor of cultural science,

Professor Machrova E.V.

Saint Petersburg

2001

The contents

Introduction

Chapter 1. Barbarous Europe and typology problem of

Mythological characters

1.1. Barbarous Europe and its cultural worlds

1.2. A structural nucleus in mythologies of peoples Barbarous

Europe and social-cultural determinants of the basic mythological types

Chapter 2. Mythological images in culture

The West-European barbarians

2.1. Iconography origins of the basic mythological types

2.2. Mythological characters in Celt culture

2.3. Mythological characters in German-Scandinavian culture

Chapter 3. Mythological characters in culture of Central - and

East-European barbarians

3.1. Mythological characters in Thracian and

Illyrian cultures

3.2. Mythological characters in Scytho-Sarmatian culture

3.3. Mythological characters in Balt culture

3.4. Mythological characters in Slavic culture

The Conclusion

The Bibliography

 

 

Introduction.

The Theme of this thesis is chosen not casually. The requirement of scientific judgement of the richest mythological material was realised by the author after creation more than 200 pictures devoted to art interpretation of plots Scandinavian, Celt, Slavic, Greek, Indian, Iranian, Finno-Ugric and other myths. Comprehension of sense of the European and world mythologies can be, in opinion of the author, key to understanding of such significant modern questions, as, for example, a problem of law of occurrence social project and social myths or a phenomenon of an enhanced attention to an ancient mythological heritage in a modern society.

You see if in Russia numerous cultural mythological communities, - fans of Tolkien, Slavic, Celt, Nordic, Indian, Zoroastrian and other traditions, - only recently in foreign democratic societies this process was developed much earlier are organised. There already for a long time there are cultural movements Asatru, Wicca, Druid awards etc. which participate in elections, being blocked frequently with the ecological and liberal organisations (in USA at last elections they supported And. Mountain). About activity of owners of similar sights speaks also acquaintance with domestic both world Internet and its mythological forums and web-resources.

Interests of peoples Central and the East Europe to the mythological heritage were to no small degree caused by formation of the new states. But, it is thought, the reason of such attention is far from being it one. Pictures queness and expressiveness of ancient mythologies, the heroic, romantic worlds with their century systems of values carry away young people simultaneously the authenticity and esoteric. Other people enable to realise prominent features of " mythological soul " own and other peoples. This process goes in all-European and even world scales, on the one hand, it is enough to recollect the spokesman of outlook European new right Alaine de Benoix, with another - J. Attali, long time being one of key figures of the European Economic Community.

The Understanding of text, sign character of ancient myths opens access to the invaluable information for historians, anthropologists, philosophers, psychologists and the opportunity of a new sight on occurrence and functioning modern mythologies (political, sports, weights - media and gives many others).

The Author believes he in a condition to bring in the feasible contribution to performance of so actual problem for a society - comprehension of sense of ancient mythologies.

The Urgency of research, thus, is caused by growing interest to mythology as a whole and to a mythological heritage of Barbarous Europe, in particular, both in Russia, and in a number of other countries (France, USA, Ireland, Scandinavia, the Baltia, Romania and some other) where this heritage frequently is used as a material for creation various ideological and anthropological designs. Thus complication of many images and plots it is capable to result to various subjective and politic constructions. To prevent such danger of ideological gamble the best understanding of base mythological structure is capable.

The Purpose of this work: on the basis of the analysis of monuments of art culture to reveal a structural nucleus of a pantheon, general for mythological traditions of Barbarous Europe and to look after its local data.

For achievement of the purpose it was necessary to solve the following problems:

1. On the basis of studying maximum big number of mythological plots of peoples of Barbarous Europe and related it of cultures, basing on the broad audience of domestic and foreign researches to create model of a structural nucleus of a pantheon of peoples of Barbarous Europe.

2. To reveal connections between social-cultural changes and change of objects of worship at early stages of development (bronze and iron centuries) European peoples.

3. To lead comparison of literary and graphic sources, revealing laws of development of mythological images in various cultures.

The Object of research: mythological images in culture of Barbarous Europe.

Methods of research:

1. The comparative-historical method is base for this thesis. Its application recognises that in development new elements are formed from already existing. As against the typological approach, the comparative-historical method first of all is directed on studying of concrete elements and only through them comes to disclosing initial structure and its evolution. Elements of presumably common origin are compared only. Then (by analogy with comparative-historical Indo-European the linguistics) establishes type from which considered elements have taken place. As Indo-European peoples are related each other genetically the relatives who have occurred from a uniform root are also their mythologies. Hence, comparing mythological images of peoples of Barbarous Europe and them Indo-European relatives and allocating typical features we gradually can allocate initial mythological types.

2. The typological method in research is directed on revealing of the mythological types making a mythological nucleus, by a principle of possession to such types of the most significant for ancient societies functions. Typological and comparative-historical methods mutually supplement each other in research, allowing obtaining the results, simultaneously, from functional mythological types to concrete mythological images and from concrete elements to an initial structural nucleus.

3. As object of consideration is not only Barbarous Europe as a whole, but also the separate cultural worlds inside it, it is impossible to do without a cultural - historical method.

4. As the basic working method of research serves it is system - iconographic method. It is widely used by Swedish researcher Charles Hauck, who study, in particular, a problem gold bracteates (breast ornaments). The method is based on recognition in monuments of the fine arts of repeating motives and that and their consideration in view of written certificates of contemporaries and mythological sources. The art culture of considered epoch means dualism of the literature and the fine arts, being additional each other sources at studying so complex and fragmentary kept phenomenon, as mythology.

5. Research inevitably adjoins to such sciences as archaeology, a history, ethnology and even the linguistics and if necessary addresses to methodological receptions of these sciences.

The history of question:

Studying mythology within the limits of the European tradition of knowledge began in epoch of classical Greece (philosophic-symbolical concept Platon was rather interesting). In epoch of Middle Ages Christianity treatment to this subject was negative. Revival of interest to mythology has taken place from Renaissance. Thus, though separate concepts surpassed time (are those, for example, were sights J. Vico which believed, that the myth in ancient epoch comprised all aspects of culture), as a whole, is necessary to attribute the beginning of the scientific analysis of myths to middle of 19 centuries. Then there were two large scientific schools: sun-moon where gods were treated as symbols sun-moon objects or the meteorological phenomena and cultural - anthropological school resisting to it, whose representatives investigated archaic tribes of South America, Equatorial Africa and Oceania.

The sun-meteorological school represents significant interest from the point of view of the present research as its representatives used a comparative-historical method. This method was borrowed from comparative Indo-European linguistics which actively developed from the end of 18 centuries. It meant a generality of an origin Indo-European peoples and relationship of their languages occurring from certain "parent language", existing in the remote past. Representatives of sun-mythological school (A. Kun, V. Shvarz, A.N. Afanas'ev, etc.) have applied F.I. Buslaev this method to studying Indo-European mythologies, and such approach has not lost the value and today.

The brightest spokesman of cultural - anthropological school were E. Taylor and J. Fraser - authors, accordingly, animystical and ritualistic theories of a myth. Representation is typical of this direction about a myth as about pre-scientific an explanation of the phenomena of world around. Despite of many important ideas and the valuable ethnographic material collected by representatives of cultural - anthropological school, such sight represents the certain recourse.

The Twentieth century is characterised by attention to psychological aspects of a myth. On this basis such influential concepts, as the theory primitive thinking Levi Broulle, the theory mythical creation were created with the purpose of rescue from fear before M. Eliade's history, structuralistic theory of a myth of K. Levi-Straus etc.

It is necessary to recognise significant achievements of the mentioned scientists in the field of the analysis of features of mythological thinking, reflection in myths of space and time. Nevertheless, from the point of view of the present research the greatest interest is represented with works, whose authors concentrate the attention to concrete mythological characters as these characters and the plots connected to them are the basic maintenance of any mythology. Here again there is a problem of interpretation of concept " the mythological character ".

Answers to this question in different epoch could be various. Originally "god", "hero", "demon" were thought as the real-life subjects distinguished from the person only by that were, on L.N. Gumilev words, on the order is more perfect than him as people are more perfect than ants. In process of development of a civilisation (both in the West, and in the East) there were sceptical moods. We see the ironical attitude to images of ancient Greek gods at Aristophan and Lucian or representation about gods as the idolised historical figures at Eugemer.

Alongside with it there was also other tendency connected to the general channel of formation of world religions (we shall recollect Platon's "ideas"). The god in an Islam or Christianity (partly and in Zoroastrianism) is supreme essence. At an uncooperative altitude to Paganism on the part of adherents of monotheism, it is necessary to tell that traces of ancient mythological images are widely submitted in world religions. First, Ahuramazda , Allah or a Christian Trinity comprise the numerous aspects Indo-European or Semitic gods. Second, world religions mean presence of the whole classes of supernatural essences, and in some it is possible to distinguish former pagan gods.

In New time, in connection with secularisation interest to mythological primary sources, on the one hand, has quickened, with another - they were interpreted, as a rule, in the reduced, allegorical kind. Simultaneously with it there was an interesting tendency to treat images of ancient gods as poetic metaphors which originates in 13 century (Sturluson's Edda). Especially this tendency was developed in epoch of romanticism and neo-romanticism.

In the twentieth century significant influence on understanding of a problem of interpretation of concept " the mythological character " rendered K.G. Jung. Such Jung's archetypes as "anime", "animus", "mother", "wise old man" partly it is possible to interpret as prototypes of characters of all world mythology. At all importance of such installation which in eyes of the modern person as though will rehabilitate mythology, giving it intellectual support, it is necessary to note, that the Swiss scientist was, first of all, the psychoanalyst that has imposed very strong print on all this concept. To present time still know about mental processes that on this basis to build global concepts more few.

Therefore, while it is represented to more lawful to treat mythological characters from the point of view closer to sociological - gods as an embodiment of social forces and structures (this approach was planned in E. Durkgejm 's 19 century).

For achievement of the purpose put in the present research, are very important was to familiarise with the works studying concrete European and is wider - Indo-European than mythology. In spite of the fact that we in the country and abroad have the extensive scientific literature investigating mythologies of various peoples of Europe, in a domestic science attempt of their complex studying on a basis of simultaneously textual and graphic material was not undertaken yet. Besides in most cases, scientists work within the framework of one ethnic culture, though it is known that really to understand a subject or the phenomenon it is possible only in comparison with similar for it.

Researches frequently geographically are located in the countries in which territory there is no time lived these peoples. In the attitude the Celts we see, that on continent scientists of France were engaged in studying of their culture first of all (J. Hatt) and Czech (J. Filip). Island Celt culture was studied, accordingly, by Britains (item Mac Cane). To this question showed interest scientific USA (F. Bober), by virtue of that in territory of this country large Irish and Scottish communities live.

The numerous works have devoted to the German-Scandinavian culture Scandinavian (B. Almgren, E. Oxenstirna, S. Lindkvist etc.), German (F. Hoysler), English (E. Davidson, A. Evans) experts. In Russia above this theme worked as A. Gurevich, E. Meletinsky, M. Steblin-Kamensky.

The scolars of Bulgaria (in H.Danov, M.Tsoncheva), Romania and Moldova (I. Nikulitse) studied Thracian-Dacian.

Above studying of culture of Scythians and the Sarmatians lived in South-Russian steppes Rissian researchers (as V. Abaev, M. Artamonov, D. Raevsky, S. Jatsenko) worked mainly. In east Slavs also the Russian science (B Ribacov, V. Sedov, V. Propp - let alone such classics, as A. Afanas'ev and F. Buslaev) while concerning the western Slavs the priority belongs German (J.Herman) and Czech (L.Niderle) to scientists.

Balt culture were engaged in N. Velius, M. Gimbutas (living in USA) etc.

As to cultures with which at modern peoples alive communication(connection) here not all so is unequivocal has interrupted. For example, strong schools Etruscology have developed, for example, in Germany (Э. Gerhard, item. Court, E.Rashinger) and Russia (P. Modestov, A. Nemirovsky). The same can be told and about cultures the Hittities and the Zoroastrian Persians.

Among the scientists engaged in research the Indo-European mythologies as a whole, J. Dumezil, the author of the so-called three-functional theory uses the greatest popularity. His idea basis on fact that primary gods of the Indo-Europeans should be grouped on functions: magic authority, military force, fertility (the pantheon represented a society projection as Dumezil saw it). At all beauty and logicality and wide popular (ideas Dumezil use in the constructions many intellectuals of Europe - on the one hand - "new right philosophers", on the second hand - their antipode - "mondialist" Jacque Attali) this theory is a little bit artificial and causes disputes. In particular, it is known, that the gods connected to sphere of fertility, had in most cases magic function (and, frequently and military). Nevertheless, extensiveness of erudition and the deep analysis of the French scientist have enriched a science with many valuable conclusions. Besides, as fairly marks Mac Cane " irrespective of its central thesis, theory Dumezil gives reason for existence of the coordinated system of the gods inherited from Indo-Europeans of the past... " (Mac Cana, 1973).

In a domestic science Indo-Europeans mythologies are engaged in reconstruction of the most ancient In. Ivanov and In. Н. Axes. They, as well as Dumezil, investigate basically mythological texts. Using principles of structural linguistics, Ivanov and Axes allocate some circles of the mythological characters described by a generality of fields of activity and, especially, the names which are going back to uniform Indo-European roots (for example: deiuo-" the day time shining sky "; perk-"thunder"; uel-connected to the world dead; iemo-"twin"; s (a) uel-"sun"; trit-, dhon-and (mo)-mer-the deities connected to water and the bottom world). These researches are of great importance. However, at all breadth of the scientific review, Ivanov and Axes almost did not concern the Celts and German (also as Dumezil did not mention mythology Balt and Slavs). Behind frameworks of their work there was, for example, such chain of gods, as Hermes - Odin - Lugh , genetically close, but having the names not connected among themselves (as frequently the mythological character started named not on a primary name, and one of epithets - that complicates work of the linguist).

Thus, at all variety of works existing in the world scientific literature on this subjects, they or have local character, or concentrate the attention to any one side of art culture (as a rule, texts). And you see in definition of a structural nucleus of mythology studying of monuments of the fine arts which allows to fill in many lacunas of a textual material is capable to play very important role also and to give other time cuts that helps to see mythological images in development. In comparison of these both sides of art culture feature of this work also consists. Thus it bases on maximum broad audience of researches and considers all existing cultures of Barbarous Europe both many related Mediterranean and Asian cultures.

Scientific novelty of work:

In research on the basis of the analysis of maximum wide art - historical material the primary structural nucleus of mythologies of peoples of Barbarous Europe as the several initial mythological types forming steady structure of a pantheon is revealed. The local variants of this structure connected to features of historical development of separate peoples of Barbarous Europe were studied.

By comparison of monuments of the fine arts and the literature (and a number of monuments for the first time is entered in sight the domestic scientific literature) the most important images of mythologies of peoples of Barbarous Europe and their neighbours are analysed. In many respects such mythological types studied anew which are included in an initial pantheon of Barbarous Europe, as " the Cultural Hero " and " the God of Earthly Forces ".

The extensive album of photocopies of monuments of the fine arts is made.

The following results were obtained:

1. In research the concept of concept of "Barbarous Europe", including three aspects is offered:

Cultural historical; religious; stages.

2. It is submitted model of the initial European pantheon consisting of several extremely steady types: the God of the Clear Sky, the God of the Thunder, the God of Earthly Forces, the Cultural Hero, the Great Goddess. Each of them had characteristic iconography and corresponds with the certain mythological plots.

3. Use of this theoretical model allows to clear functions of mythological characters of some the European pantheons (for example, Celtic one).

4. On a basis of these models of a mythological nucleus identification of lines non-attributed iconography images with mythological characters known in literary texts is suggested.

5. The connections of the mythological nucleus data in the various cultural worlds of Barbarous Europe with changes in social-historical sphere are considered.

6. The role of the Greek-Roman civilisation as catalyst for expression by barbarous peoples in art of original religious ideas is revealed.

 

Chapter 1. Barbarous Europe and typology problem of mythological characters:

1.1. Barbarous Europe, and its cultural worlds.

 

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