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"Heliopolis" by Ernest Junger.



Remarkable Ernest Junger's novel "Heliopolis" is interesting in particular to that is written not simply by "writer", but the thinker and the figure, whose career was not denied (as in a case with many philosophers – to take even Nitsshe), and proved to be true his life experience.

         Ernest Junger is the person, living hundred three years – all twentieth century. The son of the German professor who was fond entomologist and studying of sea depths, he, secretly from father has acted in the French Foreign legion. After the beginning of the First world, Junger as the volunteer has gone on the western front and became the hero battling against Englishmen and the Frenchmen (experience of war has been embodied in the book "IN STAHLGEWITTERN").

         After capitulation of Germany, Junger it was pulled together to many right groupings, has developed active literary activity. It "the Decline of West" inspired Spengler. Probably, the writer liked Spangler’s words that the financial capital will win the industry, but will be in turn defeated "power of cesars". Really, Ernest Junger's brilliant and cold style corresponds to imperial, civilization phase of culture.

         Junger was the author of the concept of "total mobilization", the herald of "the Era of titans", given birth by will from chasms of social alienation. However, soon she it was disappointed in the German realities, ujdja in internal emigration. In the novel "On marble rocks" it has criticized Hitler's mode.

         Being it is called up for military service with the beginning of the Second world war, Junger it was limited to a role of the observer. It was close to circles of the officers and, after unsuccessful attempt at Hitler, is sent in resignation (his son has fallen a victim to the fascist tribunal).

         After war Junger was engaged in literary activity much, wrote fantastic novels (for example – "Glass bees"), devoted to problems of the Future. To one of such books became "Heliopolis".

         Action of the novel occurs in Heliopolis – the certain fantastic terrestrial city combining high technologies and pseudo-feudalistic orders.

Here it is necessary to make small deviation. Continental civilizations of 20 centuries – Soviet Union and Germany developed turbines, rockets and so forth. It is explains aspiration of people of an epoch of the Big Modernist style in space distances.

Compare it with present techniques – fragile, vulnerable computers and mobile phones.

The won postmodernist civilization prefers optimization available. We can see blossoming of information technologies (including the Internet). Recently, by the way, scientists from the London university college have acted with the project "the liquid information" where each word in the text will simultaneously be a hyperlink. And the reference will specify some addresses at once.

         The project excites imagination. You imagine to yourself this liquid, shivering text. Knowingly an Anglo-Saxon civilization name "sea" or "Atlantic", with domination of every possible "exchanges".

         Repeatedly wrote, that information and rocket technologies require in each other, but badly develop together. Cosmic space – or the Internet. Or aspiration on a vertical – for limits of a terrestrial environment. Or – desire to spread on Earth surface. The most interesting, that both these mutually exclusive tendencies are generated in bowels of a uniform Western civilization.

Coming back to Junger, it is necessary to note, that its novel contains attempt to reconcile space and computer science. On the one hand, phonofor – hybrid mobile telephone with Internet. Notice, by the way, that it is written in 1949!

On the other hand - heavy arms, the rockets flying in depths of space.

The disposition of the novel is interesting. Time of action – some decades later world war. In Heliopolis (capital of the world?) authority were challenged by the Proconsul (the chapter of army leaning on aristocracy and church) and Landfogt (the populist supervising retaliatory bodies, press and appealing to an instinct of crowd) each other. In what that sense this opposition revives opposition of a fascist party and Prussian generals in the third Reich.

Junger writes nothing about the ending of struggle, but victory Landfogt is represented obvious (as well as in a case with Germany). As the Proconsul does not undertake resolute actions, time works on its opponents, and army, being cannot feel the opposition to the population – decays. As the army in 180 AD in China (after revolt of Yellow bandages), in February 1917 in Russia was spread out, during Islamic revolution in Iran.

But this collision not strongly disturbs Junger. For, except for Landfogt and Proconsul there is the supreme force – authority of the Regent in the world. Regent has once won in wars, but left from a direct control. Regent has reserved the control over heavy arms and is borrowed with an outer space exploration. However it sharp-sightedly observes of events in Heliopolis, expecting when the fruit will ripen and will fall to its legs.

This situation copies the typical mythological scheme. The Supreme god, the charter from creation "leaves on rest" having transferred reins of government to the children-twins – black and white. Especially precisely such scheme is shown in zervanizme, gemmated from religion Zaratustra. There Infinite time – Zervan has generated twins – good Ahura Mazda and malicious Angra Mainyu. Zervanizm has influenced to some heresies and mythologies of Eurasia.

This parallel with Ancient Persian tradition is natural, as Ernest Junger addresses to "the Iranian trace". There is Pars community (The Parses are the last Zoroastrianism in a reality) In Heliopolis. This community is pursued by Landfogt, who using it as the tool of a forcing of a mass psychosis. The alliance of the hero of "Heliopolis", with Pars women Budur Peri (it is difficult to name love of their relation) should symbolize return of the author to principles of humanism.


Alex Fantalov.


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