Lev Gumilev and his passionary theory ethnogenes.
The theory ethnogenes by Lev Gumilev looks one of the most convincing concepts of historical process. The term "passionarity" has began fashionable to quote concerning and without an occasion, and is evident, that the majority of "interpreters" plainly are not familiar with works of Lev Nikolayevich (on this background and there are faithful reasoning of type: " passionarity persons of Moscow – from Jury Dolgoruky up to Jury Luzhkov").
So, in brief –Gumilev’s theory has some aspects: passionarity; concept of ethnos; its periods of development; system and anti-system. For our theme is important the following.
According to the historian (and in it Gumilev likes Spengler and Danilevsky) people is the organic phenomenon which passes the certain periods of a life – "stage": rise, development, climax, inertial (after Gumilev - "obscuration"), convolution and memorial. And these phases (as well as occurrence of ethnos) are directly connected to a condition of passionarity (a level of power) its members.
In a stage of rise passionarity grows, in a phase of development she reaches the maximum heat (acmatic phase). Occurs "overheating systems" - struggle of ambitions, and the ethnos enters a condition of a climax (sharp decrease in power).
In an inertial stage (if will have the luck enter it, passing depopulation) passionarity declines not quickly and the ethnos lives the saved up riches and traditions. This period is especially favorable for "collecting of fruits terrestrial" - a mellow autumn of a civilization. A vivid example here is the Western world 18 – 20 centuries.
At last, convolution stage is new sharp downturn passionarity, painful falling of ethnos.
It is necessary to add, that (according to Gumilev) there are three categories of people: passionarity, harmonious individuals, sub-passionarity people. Passionarity people have got the superfluous power. And it has no attitude to morals, ideology, even to talent, there are only gradation of passionarity-power. In any case, passionary makes the acts leaving for a side of a biological instinct of self-preservation. Passionary can be the soldier, the politician, scientific, the artist, the writer, the predictor, the terrorist, simply the loser.
As for the harmonious person their passionarity and a biological instinct counterbalance each other. Such individual (if there is a corresponding talent and school) in good conditions to become even the excellent artist, the composer, etc. Under one condition - if for it pay. If is not present – it will engage what or an another matter, let in less creative, but more profitable.
Sub-passionary people are
not capable for useful things. Biological pulses –
primary reactions (lust, rage, laziness) much more surpass power. Typical Sub-passionary people are
tramps, mercenaries, prostitutes. Though, certainly, they can show the talents
and in other spheres. A modern epoch accumulation of such types at the highest
levels, by the way, characterizes societies, both in
Gumilev results weight of examples of history of ethnos and super-ethnos (civilization). Here is how it looks concerning the Western world.
In 9 century
of our era passionarity
push has mentioned
At acmatic phase we see struggle Guelfes and Gibellins in Sacred Roman empire
of the German nation, Centenary war of
In a phase of a break there are Reformation, religious wars, Thirty-year war of 17 centuries, to revelry gangsterism.
stage ethno-cultural split of
Brahmans, ksatriyas, and vaisyas in Russia.