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The conclusion

In the conclusion on the basis of the carried out research the following conclusions are made:

1. The "Barbarous" step of development was one of key historical stages, from the point of view of creation mythological artefacts of culture. It is connected by that mythopoetic tradition is a product of oral creativity of peoples, which are taking place at a heroic, "barbarous" step of development. Thus the concept of "the European barbarity" given research has incorporated:

1) Cultural-historical ("Roman") interpretation;

2) Religious ("medieval") interpretation;

3) Stage interpretation.

Cultural-historical concept "Barbarous Europe" is because peoples having general Indo-European origin occupied it. On life of these peoples, thus, a strong print influence of a powerful Greek-Roman civilisation has lain. Religious concept Barbarous Europe is owing to domination in its territory of the pagan religions also having a uniform origin. At last, it is possible to consider Barbarous Europe and with stage points of view as its existence passed within the limitation of the Heroic Age which overcoming for this or that people meant, simultaneously, and an output from uniform "barbarous" cultural space. The territory of this space, certainly, varied for so long period of a history. In different time it occupied space of modern Spain, France, British Isles, Germany, Scandinavia, Central and the East Europe (up to Volga), switching in the structure some the cultural-historical worlds. In quality of bases for allocation of this or that "world", are applied positions,

Used in M.B. Shchukin's works (similarity of forms of economic activities, the social organisation, an environment, language, a mental warehouse of the basic part of the population expressing in religion and art). In the present research seven worlds of Barbarous Europe are allocated: Celtic, Germanic-Scandinavian, Baltic, Slavic, Scythian-Sarmatian, Thracian, Illyrian. Already to 5 century B.D. there was a tendency to formation inside Barbarous Europe two big regions. The first included Celtic and Germanic-Scandinavian cultural worlds from which feudal Western Europe finally has grown. The second region was more mosaic, uniting the Balts, the Slavs, the Illyrians, the Thracians the Scythian-Sarmatians. Later, in its territory were generated as cultural-historical concepts Central and the East Europe.

The beginning of occurrence of Barbarous Europe in its characteristic kind can be attributed to the beginning of the Iron Age (so-called Halshtat C - from 7 c. B.D., and it is especial from the following behind it Laten period - from 5 c. B.D.). About this time the Celtic and Scythian, Thracian and Scythian cultural worlds have arisen. And, that it is important, in the same period antique Greece has cultural apart, having opposed itself to "barbarians" (the fact having far-reaching consequences).

The late limit of Barbarous Europe existence is very dim, and is defined by gradual retraction of the cultural worlds making it in the civilisation, at first Roman, then Christian. This process proceeded with 1 c. B.D., when significant parts of Celtic, Illyrian, Thraco-Dacian worlds) were joined to Rome (but yet not romanised) till the end of 14 c. A.D., when last bastion of Barbarous Europe - Lithuanian paganism has fallen.

2. For development mythological image tradition of peoples of Barbarous Europe special value had influence of the Greek-Roman civilisation. The Scythians, Thraco-Dacians, Germanic-Scandinavians formed own art proceeding from original religious representations, but using antique iconography circuits, in own way reinterpreting them (so-called "style of citations"). The given process was facilitated by that listed peoples belonged to Indo-European language family and their mythological systems were genetically related.

  1. Initial structural nucleus of a mythological pantheon of peoples of

Barbarous Europe and related Indo-European peoples consist of such base types, as: the God of Clear Sky responsible for legislative function and patronising of the military law; the God of the Thunder described by military-power function; the God of Earth Powers who is carrying out agrarian-magic function; the Cultural Hero having cultural-mediator function; the multifunctional syncretic Great Goddess connected a dual heavenly-earth nature.

4. Set forth above mythological types found the admirers among various social groups: the God of the Clear Sky - among a tribal community; the God of the Thunder - among aristocracy; the God of Earth Powers - among priests and, partly, peasantry; the Cultural Hero - among owners of imperial authority and representatives of all formed state. Some exception is made here by the Great Goddess, in the considered periods being object of worship of the women limited in the rights and, to the advantage, connected with multifunctional housekeeping.

From the point of view of the given concept, the course of social-cultural process at early stages of development of European peoples can be considered in connection with change of objects of worship (these are components of the offered circuit of a structural nucleus of a pantheon). Century of the Neolithic age in the Western and Central Europe is characterised by domination of matriarchy and a syncretic cult of the Great Goddess. The Indo-Europeans (these have been formed, apparently, in territory of the East Europe) during the becoming esteemed the God of the Clear Sky (the patron of man's breeding collective as integrity). In epoch great Indo-European campaigns (the beginning of the Bronze Age) on the foreground the God of the Thunder (an embodiment of the warrior-aristocrat on a fighting chariot) was put forward. The role of the Great Goddess was gradually reduced, the given syncretic type has broken up to various less significant images. Then, already within the limits of Barbarous Europe, development occurred in the different ways. At lines of peoples (Celtics, western Balts) special value has got priestly estate and highly respected by them the God of Earth Powers. Among Germano-Scandinavians, Scytho-Sarmatians, Thraco-Dacians and Illyrians, the western Slavs (where barbarous kings had got great authority) superiority belongs to the Cultural Hero. On this background can occur and revival of reverence of the God of the Thunder (at east Balts and east Slavs).

5. As mythological consciousness yet in a condition to present abstract enough functional structures in rational kind, it forms them in the artistic images acquiring family, marriage and other relations (for which, probably, also there are some social realities).

Both heavenly characters (the God of the Thunder and the God of Clear Sky) in a number of traditions form a uniform image. The same tendency is observed and with reference to terrestrial gods - to the God of Earth Powers and the Cultural Hero. Thus, the Cultural Hero as closely connected with the world of people the character, has the general features and with the Sky God. Only the God of the Thunder and the God of Earth Powers are in rigid antagonism. The great Goddess carries out binding role among man's images. More often she of the spouse of the God of the Thunder and the God of Earth Powers, in a number of traditions the goddess consists in marriage relations with the God of Clear Sky.

6. According to the offered circuit, it is possible to reconstruct and the basic plots, general for mythologies of Barbarous Europe and, is wider - for Indo-European mythologies. It: displacement of the God of the Clear Sky from a predominating place in a pantheon; a victory of the God of the Thunder against the World Serpent; falling of the Great Goddess; prosecution by the God of the Thunder of the God of Earth Powers and the Cultural Hero; a victory of the Cultural Hero above three-headed a dragon and the wolf.

7. There are bases also to approve that the listed components of a pantheon and connected with them mythical plots have was the important source at formation of key images in late religious systems: Zoroastrian, Hinduism, Buddhist, and Christian ones.

Application of the technique submitted in research and model of the isolated structural nucleus opens new opportunities in other areas: research of the cultural worlds of all Indo-Europe, and, probably, and non-Indo-European mythologies (Chinese, Mesoamerican etc.), and also problems of mythology of the twentieth century.

Fantalov Alex


Speciality 24.00.01 - the theory and a history of culture

The dissertation on competition of a doctor degree of cultural science

The bibliography



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