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Theme 1. Realistic and decorative understanding of art as the manifestations of the sensitive and ideational types of cultures.

P.A. Sorokin and his typology of culture. Sensitivism - reality has sensual nature. Naturalism. Ideational culture - reality has extra-sensual nature. Symbolism. Mixed idealistic type.

Concepts of conditional and realistic art. Forms of the conditional art: ornament (presence of symmetry and connected with it concepts of stylisation, motive, rhythm), non-figurative images (absence of symmetry). Presence of the specific measure of conditionally in any work of realistic art. History of depictive art as the change of the ideational and sensitive types of the perception of peace.

Theme 2. Artistic and aesthetic principles in the ancient peace.

Palaeolithic art. Realism of the paintings of the caves.

Mesolithic art. Conditionally and sketchiness.

Art of ancient Egypt. Conditionally, syncretism, large style as the synthesis of architecture, painting and sculpture (the clearly expressed integrative beginning). Analogies between the ancient-eastern "large style" and the art with the totalitarian regimes of the twentieth century.

Art of ancient Greece and ancient Rome. The considerable proportion of realistic beginning with the specific gravity to the idealisation.

Art of the peoples of "barbarous Europe" as an example of the clearly expressed principle of depictive conditionally, ideationalism. Celtic "Disney's style". The "expressionism" of the art of Vikings. Beast style of Scythians. Slav ornamentalizm.

Theme 3. Artistic and aesthetic principles into the Middle Ages.

Tightest connection of the depictive art of the Middle Ages with the dogmas of the world religions: Islam, Christianity, and Buddhism. Syncretism' and the conditionally of religious art as manifestations of the ideational type of culture.

Christian art. Partial recovery to the depictive principles of the ancient east. Symbolism. Byzantium.

Moslem art. Phenomenon of the significant reduction of realistic beginning. Mathematically calculated ornamentalizm.

Buddhistic art. Wealth of forms. Planeness of images. China, Japan.

Theme 4. Depictive art of revival and new time as the united period of sensativnogo type supremacy.

Recovery to the antique realism in the image of body. Development of the theories of air and linear prospect. "everything must appear on the picture in the manner that it is seen by our eyes" (P. Sorokin). Development of the genres of portrait, view, stills life.

Theme 5. Art of the twentieth century.

Modern. Gradual, but very rapid erosion of the realistic principle, displaced not by ornamental, but avangard art. Phenomenon of "classical" avangard (abstractionism, suprematism, cubism, surrealism, and so forth.), the expressing period modernism. Multivariance of the development of art - second recovery to the realism in the totalitarian countries, which present another version of modernisation ("large style").

New forms of the art: cinematography, animated cartoon (some of the last refuges of realism). Art of advertisement. Art of Post-modern. Video clip art as the unique form of integrative art. Concepts of image and brand. Installation and performans. Computer technologies in the art.

Theme 6. Russian culture as an example of the fight of ideational and sensitive types. Repetition of the rhythms of the development of Byzantine and West European art.

People decorative- applied art as the heritage of pre-Christian ancient-Slav epoch. Embroideries thread on the tree. Depictive elements of Indo-European mythology. Russian artistic trades 18 - 20 it is age-long (Khokhloma, Gzhel', Zhostovo, Kargopol').

Christian art of Russia.

Realism 18 - 19 is age-long.

Russian advance guard. Social realism. Contemporary situation.

Theme 7. Theory of the composition:

Contrasts and composition centre. Nuance - accent. Symmetry - asymmetry. Large - small. Rhythm as reinforcing means of depictive effect. Concept of the nature of the line: rigid (mechanical, man beginning), soft (organic, female beginning). Two forms of static (horizontal - the expression of rest, vertical line - the expression of stress). Dynamics (diagonals, inclined - the expression of motion). Expressive special features of the simplest geometric figures: circle - the concentration of attention, triangle - external dynamics, rectangle - internal dynamics (Y. Shevchik). Ideational, suprematic composition as the method of mastery of the theory of the arrangement of the depicted objects on the plane. E. Lisitskiy's compositions.

Theme 8. Painting.

Chromatics. Colour circle. Basic and complementary, warm and cold colours. Colour, hot-cold and tone contrasts. Symbolic value of the colour: red - stress and force, yellow - disorderliness, brown - the closed nature, green - calmness, dark-blue - calmness and contemplation, violet - grief. The ambivalence of black and white it is colour, that expresses simultaneously the concepts of "end" and "beginnings". Colouring as connection within the frames of the local colour of many diverse nuances. Watercolour technique of work on- damp. Watercolour technique of the filling: the sequential filling of plans, modelling volumes, "producer" stage - the softening of outlines and the "binding" of objects by shadows. Image of one and the same object in the conditionally- decorative (with the laying out into the local pieces) and realistic manner. Still life, view, portrait.

Theme 9. Drawing.

Concepts spot, line, and prime. Engraving, etching, print, lithograph. Figure technique by feather and by India ink - example of realistic drawing. A. Durer and G. Dore - model of this art. Conditionally- decorative graphic technology (filling). O. Berdsley, I. Bilibin.

Photocopying as contemporary alternative to printed engraving.

Theme 10. Thematic creation.

Mythological means and subjects as ideal material for the creation. Their national character and at the same time internationalist', colourfulness and philosophise'. Archetypes. Tightest connection with the entire history of world culture and aspiration in the future. Possibility of constructing the integrative type of lesson (combination of art with the music, the history, the literature). National ornament (Chinese, Indian Ancient Greek, Scandinavian, Slav) and mythology. Mythological creation as the method of the reconciliation of ideational and sensitive began creation of the idealistic type of culture.

Alex Fantalov.




Lessons of art 1 - 2.


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