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3.2. Mythological images in Scythian-Sarmatian culture

Images of Scythian deities.

As Scythians, probably, had no writing, we are compelled to address to antique sources, most important of which is 4 book of Herodot's "History" where seven deities of a Scythian pantheon are listed and two versions of a legend about an origin of Scythians - the unique Scythian myth kept entirely are stated. The variant of the same myth is given also Diodor Sicilian. "According to Herodot into structure of a pantheon entered seven deities that reflects ancient Indo-Iranian tradition. At the supreme place of hierarchy is Tabiti, on average - Papay and Api, on the lowest -Hoytosir, Argimpasa and two deities, which Scythian names are not named by Herodot. All these gods are identified by Herodot as: Hesta, Zeus and Gaia, Apollo, Aphrodite, Heracles, and Ares. As Herodot wrote the most powerful, and numerous of Scythian tribes - Imperial Scythians - worshipped to Poseidon which at them was called Tagisamad. <...> Deities of average and partly the lowest level appear and in 'Legend about an origin of Scythians'. Most full this myth is stated Herodot in the first version. In the uninhabited territory, after received name Scythia, from marriage Zeus and daughter of Borisphen (Dnepr) the first person - Targitay is born. Three his sons become ancestors of various parts of Scythian people <...>. The sky gold subjects - a plough, a poleaxe and a bowl fell. At attempt of two senior brothers to come nearer to them gold is ignited, but with approach younger one fire dies away and Kolaksay seizes sacred attributes. It is perceived as a sign. Kolaksay and his posterity become lords Scythia. Kolaksay

divides Scythia into three empires between his sons, and sacred gold to which Scythian tsars annually make a sacrifice is kept in greatest of them. To these relics it is connected, according to Herodot, any ritual reproduced on an annual Scythian holiday: the person who has slept with them open-air, less than in one year inevitably died. <...> According to Diodor Zeus's wife there is a maiden given birth by the ground having below of a belt a snake body. Their son was named Scyth <...> This myth is stated differently in other versions. The main character identified with Heracles, comes in Scythia after fulfilment of some feats. Then the tired hero falls asleep, and at this time at him horses vanish. Having gone on searches, Heracles finds out a cave in which the fantastic essence - women-snake lives. She informs, that horses are stolen by her, and agrees to return them only on condition that the hero will enter with it marriage connection. From this union three sons - ancestors of the peoples are born. Heracles, leaving from Scythia, leaves the spouse one of two bows and a belt with the bowl attached to him and puts a condition that after achievement maturities they have tried to pull this bow and to be surrounded with this belt. <...> The Winner in this test becomes the younger brother the Scythian from whom conduct the sort. 1997. Scythian kings" (Myths of nations of the world. v. 2, pp. 446 - 447). Identification Kolaksay with Heracles specifies that the ancestor of Scythian kings belongs to type of the Cultural Hero.

Magnificent Scythian art can add the data of references. It has passed some stages of the development. D.S. Raevsky gives such periods of Scythian art: 1) epoch of great campaigns to Forward Asia - 8 - 7-th centuries. B.D.; 2) epoch of independent development - 6 - 5-th centuries. B.D.; 3) epoch of the Greek influence - with 5 -th century. B.D.

The initial stage is characterised by occurrence in art of Scythians of the first anthropomorphic images (under influence of Middle East civilisations). These are ornaments on sword sheath from Melgunovsky barrow - winged geniuses about trees (typically Mesopotamian plot) and Kelermes silver rithon. Last represents for us especial interest. The centaur bearing on his shoulder a tree with adhered to it a deer is pictured there. This motive is present at folklore modern Ossets where ability to bear on his shoulder the biggest tree with body of deer acts as a parameter of physical power of the hero. Amazingly, but we find a similar plot in Etruscan art as an ornament of a vase. There are beside the centaur the hero struggling with a lion (Heracles?) on Kelermes rithon. The person with arrow, probably attacking with rear of two- or free-headed dog (Cerberus?) also is shown on Etruscan vase. Cerberus in its turn whether submits a paw to the centaur, whether attacks him. Another the same centaur behind is tormented with a lion. Both Kelermess and Etruscan centaurs are similar even in details.

It is interesting, that some Etruscan frescos from a tomb in Campania represent the winged sphynx tormented with a lion in precisely the same way. Here is pertinent to recollect, that "Maris (forefather Avsonids), Ёлиан, along with many authors, considered as the most ancient people of Italy, was centauro-morphs essence (Etruscan and the Mediterranean, 1990, 123). Italic Mars, to be exact Mamers (Marmar, March) was very significant deity. By Roman tables 3 - 2-th centuries B.D. he initially patronised agriculture and anything general had no with Greek Ares. "The custom was connected to his cult ver sacrum ('sacred spring') <...> (Plin. Nat. host. 3 - 110; Strab. 5 - 4,2; Verg. Aen.7 - 750): during threatened danger the tribe let's vow to Mamers (Mars) sacrifice young growth of cattle or babies for disgust of disaster. Babies, as against young growth of animals did not kill, and after achievement of majority moved for limits of territory of a tribe. Them called Mamertins (from name Mamers)" (Myths of nations of the world, 1998. v. 1, p. 578). Young people moved thus were, naturally, are compelled by a sword to extract to themselves a place in life. That is we see a way, following which the agrarian deity of growth and fruitfulness has turned in military. (By the way, mercenaries - Mamertins have played a considerable role in the pre-Roman history of Sicily). However long time the Italics kept primary understanding Mamers as the God of Earth Powers. The Samnits - the main opponents of Rome in Italy, minted a coin, with the image of the bull - the sacred animal of Mamers, trampling legs Roman shewolf. (interesting example inversion uses in political ends of popular iconographic circuits torment). Memory that the wolf is the immemorial opponent of the God of Earth Powers and the henchman of the God of the Thunder here has had an effect. The Romans, as is known on the first place in the ideology have put the Jove, which though was the God of the Clear Sky, but (similarly to similar deities of some Mediterranean peoples - Etruscan Tin, Greek Zeus) has merged good luck the Thunder in a uniform image. The Samnits, on the contrary, honoured Mamers more and went in fight, having dressed helmets with the image of horns of the sacred bull (we shall recollect ritual horned helmets of peoples of the Bronze Age, and also the Celts and the ancient Germanics). They were supported by the Celts in this struggle. Probably, the question was two various ways of development of ancient Europe.

Etruscan variant of Mamers named Maris, but, apparently, he was not horned and it was represented as the centaur or a sphynx - an ancient image which ancestors of the Etruscans taken out from East Mediterranean. Probably, it is another iconography variant of the God of Earth Powers, that indirectly proves to be true the Greek myth about Hiron. Pious centaur Hiron was the tutor of many the hero (Tesey, Iason, Dioscuri), the god of medicine Asclepius and Heracles's and Prometey's friend, being in opposition Zeus (the given collision corresponds to close relations of the God of Earth Powers and the Cultural Hero. The winged bull-morphed an essence with the human heads, submitted on 'Kserx's propileus'. In K.V. Trever's opinion (which it is supported by many researchers) images of Gopatshah - the demigod, the patron of large horned cattle and legendary king in Persian mythology are given here (Trever, 1940, v. 2). Scythians could borrow an image of a centaur-sphynx in the same place, where also ancestors of the Etruscans and ancient Persians - in art of Forward Asia, during great Scythian campaigns. From here surprising iconography similarity which has lain on general ideological basis.

After the termination of Scythian intrusions to Forward Asia which was caused by creation there a great Persian monarchy, there has come the period concerning independent development of Scythian art. It is characterised by almost full disappearance anthropomorphic images and their replacement by 'animal style'. Rayevsky supposes that it was connected to the termination of contacts to east civilisations, the Greek cities at coast of Black Sea just arose. Besides animal images are able to reduction conformity with the mythological system more easy. (Rayevsky, 1985, 104-106). "... For a long time animals were used as an evident paradigm, attitudes between which elements, could be used as the certain model of life of a human society and a nature as a whole (first of all in aspect of fertility and cyclicity)". (Myths of nations of the world, 1998, v. 1, 440). It agrees given A.I. Shkurko, from 843 images 7-6-th centuries B.D. Animal style of a forest-steppe zone the deer, a mountain goat, the ram, the horse are submitted 537 times; predatory animals (mainly cats) - 103 times; birds (basically predatory) - 162 times. (Shkurko, 1975, 9). That the predatory animal was frequently replaced by a predatory bird is connected to representation about a presence the other world simultaneously in the sky and under the ground (Rayevsky, 1985). This Rayevsky's idea supports reasons of A. Holan mentioned above that the lord of the underground world, having shape of a predatory animal, rose in the sky to the spouse, the Great Goddess in an image of an eagle. As shows the present research, both an eagle and an animal in later times are connected with the God of Thunder.

"Deserves thus attention, that griffin in treatment of Greek-Scythian art is an essence combining features of a predatory bird and a lion, zoomorphic embodiments both the other worlds - top and bottom <...> 'This' the world, the world mortal, simbolised with the deer, a goat, the ram, the horse resists to 'other' to the world, the world of death in its variants" (Rayevsky, 1985, 150). Hence, we can treat numerous images of torment in Scythian art as reflection all of the same collision of struggle of the God of Earth Powers and the God of Thunder (through features of the last the ancient image of the ruler of the underground world appears through).

Special role in products of animal style the deer. "The deer devoted to the Great Goddess, has received independent value, was intelligent as the image of Scythian totem" (Chlenova, 1962, 195). Chlenova speaks about distribution deer motives far to the east with 6-5-th centuries B.D., connecting it with Scythian influence, and marking, that in post Scythian epoch of the image of deers again almost completely disappear on this space (see in the same place, with, 194-195). Really, Altai represents an interesting material. In the barrow (the Altay steppes), on one of the buried horses there was a mask topped with horns, made of a skin. The horse has replaced a deer, but representation that last should accompany with the person in a next world remained (it is like Holan's thought). And totem value of the deer and its role of medium in a next world - all this extremely important also confirms treatment of the given image as embodiments of the Cultural Hero. According to V.I. Abaev the Scythians interpreted a deer as their totem animal, than and explains its popularity in art. V.I. Abaev compares the term 'Sakes' with Ossetic 'sag' - 'deer' (from Iranian Saka - 'branch', 'horn'). Other hypothesis, the truth, connects the tribal name of Sakes (close relatives of Scythians) with Indo-Iranian 'ksatra' - a designation of estate of soldiers). As a vivid example of deer totemism the Lappish legend about man-deer. It is necessary to recollect and about stag horns Cernunnos , and about Hittite 'the god on the stag' Runda.

It is interesting, that at south-east coast of Spain the stone sculptures of deers made by ancient Iberians, and all in the typical sacrificial pose (also images of the sphynxes are found in the same place- the Iberian religion belonged to the Mediterranean world).

From the end 5-th c. B.D. the image of the person again appears in Scythian art, achieving in 4-th c. B.D. A wide circulation (that Rayevsky connects with to growing Greek influence - Rayevsky, 1985). We shall note, that in same time anthropomorphic art of Thrace has blossomed, and a little bit earlier - Etruria. Salutary, as a whole, influence of Greece became the catalyst for expression by the next barbarous peoples own (but genetically related with Greek ones) ideas. However, something the Scythians simply ordered in Greeks, as, for example, the silver vessel from a barrow Kul-Obi. The Greek masters, undoubtedly, have performed work with a profound knowledge not only ethnographies, but also outlooks of Scythians. Here we come back to a genealogic legend of Scythians about Heracles's test to his sons. "There is a hypothesis, that the myth about this test is submitted on ritual vessels from Scythian barrows: on a vessel from Kul-Obi consequences of attempt of each of brothers are represented to pull a fatherly bow, and on other vessel - delivery younger of sons of a fatherly bow as symbol of authority and exile of two grown-ups" (Myths of nations of the world, 1998, v. 2, 448). The plate from Sahnovka on which it is shown, in D.S. Rayevsky's opinion, the following - the episode of a myth not kept in records is of interest: brothers Kolaksay drink from rithon and vow to ruin him. (Rayevsky, 1977, 116). The well-known crest from barrow Soloha, executed also the Greek masters, in that case, shows the ending of a legend. The horseman together with the infantryman (the expelled brothers) battle to lonely Scythian (Kolaksay) under whom the horse (in the same place is killed, p. 117). Inevitability of Kolaksay's destruction deduced by Rayevsky from the following reasons. First, already mentioned already Scythian ritual. "It is represented quite justified, M.I. Artamonov's opinion and G. Dumezil, that the character who falls asleep with gold relics, and then is doomed to fast death, is the person replacing in ritual of real Scythian king. Hence, events occuring to him simulate that was 'in the beginning' - destiny of the first owner of sacred gold, Kolaksay" (p. 111). (There we see a ceremony, which is going back to original ritual killing of sacred king, perfectly described by G. Fraser in his well-known 'Gold branch'. It is necessary to add the stage represented on a crest is as though anthropomorphic variant of a theme 'torment').

Second, Rayevsky will carry out analogy to a plot from Persian epos 'Shahname'. (p. 115). Faridoon, the founder of a legendary dynasty of the Iranian tsars, has received authority, having killed three-headed Zahhak. Having grown old, he has divided an empire - actually the world, between his three sons. Salm have got Rum and the West, Tura - Chine and Turan. Younger Irag has received the best share - Iran and Arabistan. Then the major brothers with envy have killed him (an ideological substantiation of enmity of Iran and Turan).

Here is pertinent to remind, that Middle Persian 'Faridoon' in more ancient Avesta traditions sounded as 'Traetaona'. And in the first Herodot versions of a genealogic legend a primogenitor of the Scythians were Targitay. Besides, Greeks could deform a pronunciation of a Scythian name which in the original was probable more similar on 'Traetaona'.

Avesta Traetaona it is rather close to vedic Trita. (Thus in 'Avesta' is also own Trita - as soon as splitting there is uniform image. This Trita was the great healer who has expelled from the world illnesses. He was the third person who has squeezed out gold juice of haoma - a sacred plant and he became a father of mighty son Keresaspa, who won set of dragons and demons (Rak, 1998, 214 - 215). But vedic Trita is more ancient. Separate pies of myths give interesting data about this mysterious Indian deity. Trita, being at the bottom of deep well, appeals about the help. Or he incurs fault for murder by Indra three headed dragon Visvarupa. It believes in earlier variant of myth Visvarupa has struck by Trita. The ancient Greek Triton and especially the hero of Russian fairy tales Ivan Third (Ivan Tret'jak, Ivan Vodovich) which having won three headed serpent, appears in колодце - 'other world' on fault of brothers is close to this image. (Myths of nations of the world, 1998. v. 1, 530 - 531). The third wins tripartite one - ancient Indo-European plot. In adds much in our understanding of mythology of the Cultural Hero.

Not casually and replacement of Targitay by Heracles in the second Herodot's myth versions. Heracles also won three headed monsters - Cerberus, three bodied giant Geryon (see victory over three-headed monster ). Probably, the last was struck by the hero before Heracles has met snake-legged goddess. At least, it agrees Herodot, Heracles has come to Api, driving bulls Geryon.

The snake-legged goddess with which Heracles has married it is identified with Api of the Scythian pantheon. That in first version myth she (as Boristhena becomes wife Zeus/Papay and with mother Heracles, should not surprise. Incestuous relations are typical for the Iranian mythologies (Myths of nations of the world, 1998, v.2, 447). But in a more comprehensive sense they are characteristic for the Great Goddess which Scythian variant, undoubtedly, is Api. We can see her snake legged figure on plate from a barrow Big Cimbalka. Here again it is necessary to address to the Etruscans. On their funeral relieves the Great goddess, under name Scilla, is represented with the most full understanding of her dual, sky-earth nature - legs-snakes and wings of a bird.

The Scythians esteemed also other great female deity - Tabiti. M.I. Artamonov identified her with Api. But Herodot mentioned these goddesses are separately, besides they were compared: the first with Greek Hesta, the second with Greek Gaia . "the Hellenistic world has kept features of two 'variants' of reverence Hesta, most likely reflecting two chronological stages of development of her cult. In classical epoch the goddess this has got the specialised shape of a deity of a home <...> Literary sources have kept memoirs on earlier step of development when she represented itself as older among gods, goddesses of fire which various functions were roles of a deity of a home, sacrificial fire (and, hence, and prays), and at last embodiment of unites of the certain social organism" (Rayevsky, 1977, 90). A stage on gold plate from barrow Chertomlik (4-th c. B.D.) representing goddess with a mirror and the man with rithon as a ceremony of wedding of mortal (king) with the goddess. (pp. 98 - 101). It is necessary to add points of Artamonov's and Rayevsky's views essentially do not contradict each other and both these goddesses can represent two parties of the Great Goddess - terrestrial and heavenly.

About divine spouse Api - Papay is known little. His identification with the Zeus/Jove as though speaks, that he was the God of the Sky. The name of Papay is interpreted by the majority of researchers as 'father' and function of 'paternity' in wide understanding pulls together him with such characters, as Indian Dyaus, Baltic Dievas, Slavic Diy. But he could be and the God of Earth Powers. For the benefit of it the origin Targitay (Scythian Cultural Hero) from Papay, and also that the Scythians esteemed the special god identified by Herodot with Ares.

Scythian Ares were devoted huge altars from brushwood. There is at the top of such altar the ancient iron sword, serving by a symbol of a deity was set up. The horses, horned cattle and captured were sacrificed to him. As we saw a sword were the characteristic weapon of the God of the Clear Sky.

We have considered Scythian art agrees periods offered by Rayevsky. But there is one group of images which does not submit (and the scientist himself about it writes - Rayevsky, 1985, 135) tothem. They are the stone idols installed at top of the barrow. They are two kinds: worth and as though sitting on a horse. Idols were produced with 7-th c. B.D. And the given process proceeded and then when in Scyctia the animal style which completely has superseded animal motives from all other spheres of art dominated. There are the various interpretation of these images. And Rybacov considers their sculptures Hoytosir-Dazhbog . (Rybacov, 1987, 68 - 70). D. Berchu treated idols southwest Scythia as displays of Thracian culture to which the cult of the deity-patron of dead is connected. N.B. Elagina believed Scythian idols images of died king with symbols of imperial authority. (Elagina, 1959. P. 195). P.N. Shultz spoke, that early sculptures showed a hero-primogenitor with attributes of man's force, average - the military leader, late - portraits died as a receptacle of his vital force. At last A.I. Terenozhkin directly names Scythian idols images of Kolaksay. All listed judgements do not contradict each other and well correspond with suggested in the given work the circuit of pantheon (the God of Sky, the God of Thunder, the God of Earth Powers, the Cultural Hero, the Great Goddess).

Images of Sarmatian deities and the Osset epos.

The Greek sources on Sarmatian-Alanian mythologies are not numerous. As Herodot said, the solar deity was 'the Lord of the Massagetics'. We know about mysteries of the Aphrodite, Tanais (deities of the river of Don) and Pharsiris ' with a brilliant face'. The main thing in a cultural heritage of the Alanians is Nart epos which has been written down in 19 century A.D. It was distributed among many peoples of Caucasus, but in the most full edition is kept by the Ossets, descendants from the Alanians. The fine arts of the Sarmanic-Alanians tribes not so perfectly as Scythian one, but are rich enough antropomorthic motives. Comparing them with plots of Nart epos, we can reveal images of ancient mythology.

In this case work is facilitated by existence of S.A. Jatsenko's article "Antropomorthic images of Sarmatia" (Jatsenko, 1992). "... It is marked about 50 plots with antropomorthic characters <...> Which originals are kept in the museums scattered in huge territory" (p. 189).

In legends the Ossets the God of the Clear Sky, probably, is replaced with the Christian god-father. Thunderous function belongs to god Wacilla that is translated as 'Saint Ilya'. Frequently he is represented by set some kind of the whole class of inhabitants of heaven. A identification of the ancient God of the Thunder with prophet Ilya typically for peoples of the East Europe as we shall see later on an example of the Slavs.

For a role of the God of Earth Powers can apply Barastyr - the owner of a next world; Don-Bettyr (literally 'water Peter') - the lord of waters and a water empire (compare Greek Poseidon, Irish Donn, mythological images of the southern rivers of the East Europe (Myths of nations of the world, 1998. v. 1, with. 531); Afsati - the lord of noble animals represented by the horseman on a deer (this god posessed a sanctuary at Krivoi Rog); Falvara (sacred Flora and Laurels) - the patron of the cattle. There is special deity Tutyr - the owner of wolves. The myth was kept how Tutyr has beaten out one Falvara's eye that last did not see the wolves creeping to herds (than not 'torment' expressed in anthropomorthical form). There are the images of twins-primogenitors representing type transitive to the Hero (similar Greek Dioscuri and Indian Asvinau).

Type of the Cultural Hero was personified by Wasgergi and, partly - by Azamas. Wasgergi (the name occurs from 'Saint George') it was thought by the horseman, ride on white three-legged horse (by the way, Odin in one of German fairy tales rides on such horse also). He was considered as a divine ancestor of the Narts and their patron. Azamas, the owner of a magic pipe (Afsati has presented him it), symbolised a dying and reviving nature.

At last, the type of the Great Goddess is divided into Bsenon, Dzerassa

and some other female characters.

Now we shall look, as these late images correspond with products of Sarmatian-Alanian arts. Jatsenko allocates following iconography types: "the goddess as the young girl with two plaits and pair of animals on the sides"; "the goddess on a throne and the horseman forthcoming on the right"; "pair of the horsemen, worth beside the person each other"; "an archer shooting at a bird"; "the horseman - the hunter for a hare"; "the horseman rides on the bull"; "ram-men"; "a composition with capture of a monster"; " a man's deity sitting on buddistic pose with a vessel in hands"; "the Mongolomorphical god with his hairdress in unit, sitting on a leopard"; "a figure of the man, beside the World Serpent curtailed in a ring and the flying bird holding in paws a stone"; " three images of bearded man's heads placed on a ring" (Jatsenko, 1992, pp. 196 - 200).

Pair horsemen Jatsenko compares with Asvinau and Diocuri, but the main thing - with the Nart twins.

The double image of archer shooting at a bird - "the major moment of Alanian ethnogenetical legends - unsuccessful hunting of the twins for the magic bird - the future wife of one of them and she-ancestor of the Narts - Dzerassa (the daughter of the Lord of waters)" (Jatsenko, 1992, p. 196). Alanian myth about the twins it is possible to compare with Roman myth. The Alanian twins's father was man who was named 'wolf' (Romul and and Rem were reared by the shewolf). It as though speaks well for tothem values of the wolf for Sarmatian tribes. In that case, the antagonism between the Sarmatians and Scythians is the more clear. However, against the given assumption the wide circulation of a cult of the God of Earth Powers in Alanian culture, that will be shown below.

The horseman - the hunter for a hare. "V.V. Miller has connected this plot with Alanian hero, who caught the future to the spouse - water goddess Bzenon in shape of a hare <...> The Scythian Plots of hunting of the horseman on a wild boar D.S. Rayevsky has connected with Targitay image - the spouse (and probably the son) of the water goddess (Rayevsky, 1977, pp. 49 - 50, 83)" (Jatsenko, 1992. p, 196).

Pair the horsemen, worth beside the person to each other. "Some more M.I. Rostovtsev considered that the left horseman in with a staff-rod and rithon in his hands - the god of local nomads similar Iranian Mitra. There is in the Alanian-Ossetic epos a deity having ancient functions Mitra - the god of the contract and the patron of soldiers-men Wasgergi. <...>" (Jatsenko, 1992. P. 197). Further Jatsenko compares Wasgergi with Mitra in terms of motive of generation of the son in a stone. I can remind, as Illyrian emperors (in the before esteeming the Hero) venerated Mitra.

The goddess on a throne and the horseman forthcoming on the right. "As a whole, probably, stages of similar type represent ceremony of a marriage of the goddess with a man's deity - the horseman who has the same attributes, as Wasgergi. Connection of composition with a doleful cult is frequently emphasised. Taking into account all this, it is possible to connect the given stage with reached up to us and rethought in Nart epos fragments of a myth about a wonderful marriage of god Wasgergi with goddess Dzerassa" (Jatsenko, 1992. P. 198). From this marriage was born the mother of 100 Nart heros. She became the wife of stepbrother and mother of hundred brothers-Narts and their beauty sister. Incestuous marriages were encouraged in a society of ancient Iranians. But here there is also deeper analogy - ascending to time of Indo-Europeans unity - the union of the Hero and the Great Goddess. There is on Etruscan mirror marriage of Hercle and Uni (appropriate Roman Supreme goddess Juno) is submitted. There is on primitive Sarmatian-Alanian representation from Komarovo the goddess is shown with snake legs and the bird's wings.

The goddess as the young girl with two plaits and pairs animals on her sides was represented usually on female headdresses and diadems. "Her image can be compared with Lurystan goddess, living in a gold trunk of the world tree, Scythian Argimpasa. The rests of representations about this goddess, probably, we find in Nart epos in connection with a spring myth about Agunda (Agunda's travel on a chariot with deers etc.)". (Jatsenko, 1992. p. 199). According to a myth, beauty Agunda has managed to fascinate game on pipe Azamas, symbolising a dying and reviving nature. But as the bride money he had to pay the repayment as hundred annual deers.

Ram-men. "The Deity of similar shape (it is not necessary to confuse to one of embodiments Pharn) well-known in mythology the Alanian-Ossets. At late time it referred to 'sacred the ram' and was a deity - the owner of a house. To him prayed for birth of boys, sacrificing clay sculptures of rams" (Litvinsky, 1968, 71 - 71). On grivna from Kobyakovo we see taming the Chinese dragon by three similar essences. (Jatsenko, 1992. P. 199). It is necessary to tell, that though Persian Pharn represents a special deity, it obviously ascends with 'sacred the ram' to the uniform prototype. Pharn means 'shine', 'light', 'glory', 'the divine blessing'. Pharn "... For shahs Paradata and Kay - a mark of great value, a regal accessory, authority <...> For heroes - a pledge of their glory and victory, for 'mere mortals' - abundance, good luck, riches..." (Rak, 1998, 515). One of Pharn variants - a nimbus around of a head - has gone through Zoroastrian Iran and became indispensable attribute Christian sacred. Another, more ancient variant, was thought in shape of the ram. The mutton horns served as a part of shah's crown that originates in the Bronze Age of Lurystan. All these characteristics concern to a complex of the Cultural Hero, and in part - the God of Earth Powers.

To the same group concern a deity with deer ears and sitting having crossed legs a man's deity with a vessel in his hands. Attributes of the last: a vessel in hands, images of the eagles pecking fishes, and connection of this deity with a horse. Jatsenko compares this god of the Indian god's image of world waters, the keeper of the supreme law - Varuna, and identifies with one of the major deities of Alania-Ossetia - Don Bettyr. (Jatsenko, 1992, 200). From the point of view of the given research the 'Turkish' pose of a deity is faster 'Buddhistic' Cernunnos pose. The deer ears and the mutton symbolic also speak for themselves. Struggle against a monster is variant of struggle against the wolf.

In one it is possible to contradict against Jatsenko - concerning identification of the horseman on the bull. He writes: "In pagan religion of descendants of the Alanians - the Ossets representation about the wild bull was kept. He/she is the god - patron of agriculture Wacilla" (Jatsenko, 1992. P. 199). Wacilla was not the god of agriculture and the bull not his symbol (though in some traditions, for exemplare - Scandinavian and Hurrite ones the ram and the bull nevertheless accompany of the God of Thunder, that, probably to explain as a case of inversion). But further Jatsenko speaks: "... The figurine 'a local cult from Panticapaeum (tab. 10,3) - the horseman on the bull, playing on a pipe is not less interesting. The deity of a reviving nature playing on a magic flute, is well-known Azamas which name is known from 2-th centiry A.C.<...> (Abaev, 1982, 65-67)." (Jatsenko, 1992. P. 199). The dying and reviving god is a God of Earth Powers, and any not the God of Thunder!

So, at representatives of the given cultural world to the basic types of a structural nucleus corresponded: to the God of Clear Sky - it is possible, Papay or "Ares" (the Scythians), to the God of Thunder - Wacilla (the Alanians); to the God of Earth Powers - Don-Bettyr, Falvara, Afsati; to the Cultural Hero - Kolaksay (the Scythians), Wasgergi (the Alanians); to the Great Goddess - Api and Tabiti (the Scythians), Bzenon, Dzerassa (the Alanians). The attention absence in the Scythian pantheon of the God of Thunder and the God of Earth Powers and accent for an image of the Cultural Hero (whether it be images of Kolaksay in anthropomorphic art or a deer pays to itself within the framework of animal style). Last fact with the big share of confidence can be attributed on the account of early addition of imperial authority at Scythians (as it was mentioned above, their history shares for the appropriate periods - 'the first empire', 'the second empire', 'the third empire'). Representatives of the Sarnatic-Alanian branch esteemed also the various deities which are going back to the God of Earth Powers. In it, probably, their ideological difference from the Scythians consists.

Fantalov Alex


Speciality 24.00.01 - the theory and a history of culture

The dissertation on competition of a doctor degree of cultural science

3.3. Mythological images in Baltic culture.



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